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THE 

PEACE TREATIES 

Comprising 

The League of Nations Covenant 
Digest of the German Treaty 
Digest of the Austrian Treaty 

with Annotations by 

The American Mission at the 
Peace Conference 

Milestones on the Road to Victory 



INDEXED 



COMPLIMENTS OF 



The Federal Trade Information 

Service 

NEW YORK AND WASHINGTON 

PUBJUCATION AND BUSINE^ OFFICE, 31 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK 



Walter Qinton Jackson Library 

The University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Special Collections & Rare Books 



World War I Pamphlet Collection 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/peacetreatiescomOOunse 



THE 

PEACE TREATIES 

Comprising 

The League of Nations Covenant 
Digest of the German Treaty 
Digest of the Austrian Treaty 

with annotations by 

The American Mission at tlie 
Peace Conference 

Milestones on the Road to Victory 



INDEXED 



COPYRIGHTED 1919 BY 

THE FEDERAL TRADE INFORMATION SERVICE 

NEW YORK AND WASHINGTON 



D 



PUBLICATION of this book has been 
deferred until both Germany and Austria, 
the nations with which the United States was 
at war, had signed the peace terms of the 
allied and associated powers. 

No book which may have appeared hither- 
to is based upon the final and accepted draft 
of the two treaties with annotations by the 
American Mission at the Peace Conference. 

This book may be considered, therefore, 
as authoritative. 

The purpose is to present in easily 
understandable terms the treaties, which upon 
ratification by the United States Senate will 
end the war officially for the United States; 
with appropriate data relating to the great war. 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH 
EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, 

These Powers being described in the Treaty as the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers, 

BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, CHINA, CUBA, ECUA- 
DOR, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, THE HEDJAZ, 
HONDURAS, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, 
POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT- 
SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHO-SLOVAKIA and URU- 
GUAY, 

These Powers constituting with the Principal Powers men- 
tioned above the Allied and Associated Powers, 

of the one part ; 
and GERMANY, 

of the other part; 

Bearing in mind that on the request of the Imperial German 
Government an Armistice was granted on November 11, 1918, to 
Germany by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in order 
that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded with her, and 

The Allied and Associated Powers being equally desirous that 
the war in which they were successively involved directly or in- 
directly which originated in the declaration of war by Austria- 
Hungary on July 28, 1914, against Serbia, the declaration of 
war by Germany against Russia on August 1, 1914, and against 
France on August 3, 1914, and in the invasion of Belgium, should 
be replaced by a firm, just and durable Peace, 

For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES 
represented as follows: 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 
by: 

The Honourable Woodrow Wilson, President of the 

United States, acting in ^s own name and by his 

own proper authority. 
The Honourable Robert Lansing, Secretary of State; 
The Honourable Henry White, formerly Ambassador 

Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United 

States at Rome and Paris; 
The Honourable Edward M. House; 
General Tasker H. Bliss, Mihtary Representative of the 

United States on the Supreme War Council ; 



THE PiE AGE TREATIES 



HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOP^I 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE 
BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPER- 
OR OF INDIA, by: 

The Right Honourable David Lloyd George, M. P., 

First Lord of His Treasui"y and Prime Minister ; 
The Right Honourable Andrew Bonar Law, M. P., His 

Lord Privy Seal; 
The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G. C. B., G. C. 

M. G., His Secretary of State for the Colonies. 
The Right Honourable Arthur James Balfour, O. M. 

M. P., His Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; 
The Right Honourable George Nicoll Barnes, I\I. P., 
Minister without portfolio ; 
And 
for the DOMINION OF CANADA, by: 

The Honourable Charles Joseph Doherty, Minister of 

Justice; 
The Honourable Arthur Lewis Sifton, Minister of Cus- 
toms, 

for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA, by: 

The Right Honourable William Morris Hughes, Attorney 

General and Prime Minister; 
The Right Honourable Sir Joseph Cook, G. C. M. G., 

Minister for the Navy ; 

for the UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA, by: 

General the Right Honourable Louis Botha, Minister 

of Native Affairs and Prime Minister; 
Lieutenant-General the Right Honourable Jan Christian 

Smuts, K. C, Minister of Defence; 

for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND, by: 

The Right Honourable WilUam Ferguson Massey, Min- 
ister of Labour and Prime Minister; 

for INDIA, by: 

The Right Honourable Edwin Samuel Montagu, M. P., 

His Secretary of State for India ; 
Major-General His Highness Maharaja Sir Ganga Sin^h 

Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner, G. C. S. L, G. C. I. E., 

G. C. V. 0., K. C. B., A. D. C; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, by: 

Mr. Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council, Min- 
ister of War; 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



Mr. Stephen Pichon, Minister of Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance; 
Mr. Andre Tardieu, Commissary General for Franco- 
American Military Affairs; 
Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY, by: 

Baron S. Sonnino, Deputy; 

Marquis G. Imperiali, Senator, Ambassador of His 

Majesty the King of Italy at London; 
Mr. S. Crespi, Deputy; 

HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN, by: 

Marquis Saionzi, formerly President of the Council of 
Ministers; 

Baron Making, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Member of the Diplomatic Council ; 

Viscount Chinda, Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japeui at London; 

Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipo- 
tentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris; 

Mr. H. Ijuin, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipo- 
tentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Rome; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS, by: 

Mr. Paul Hymans, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister 

of State; 
Mr. Jules van den Heuvel, Envoy Extraordin£U"y and 

Minister Plenipotentiary, Minister of State ; 
Mr. Emile Vandervelde, Minister of Justice, Minister of 

State : 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOLIVIA, by: 

Mr. Ismael Montes, Envoy Extraordinary and Ministei 
Plenipotentiary of Bolivia at Paris; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL, by: 

Mr. Joao Pandia Calogeras, Deputy, formerly Minister 
of Finance; 

Mr. Raul Fernandes, Deputy; 

Mr. Rodrigo Octavio de L. Menezes, Professor of Inter- 
national Law of Rio de Janeiro; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC, by: 

Mr. Lou Tseng-Tsiang, Minister for Foreign Aflmrs; 
Mr. Chengting Thomas Wang, formerly Minister of 
Agriculture and Commerce; 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



THE PRESIDENT OF THE CUBAN REPUBLIC, by: 

Mr. Antonio Sanchez de Bustamante, Dean of the Fac- 
ulty of Law in the University of Havana, President of 
the Cuban Society of International Law; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR, by: 

Mr. Enrique Dorn y de Alsua, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary of Ecuador at Paris; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES, by: 

Mr. Eleftherios K, Venis^los, President of the Council 

of Ministers; 
Mr. Nicolas Politis, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUATEMALA, 

by: 

Mr. Joaquin Mendez, formerly Minister of State for 
Public Works and Public Instruction, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Guatemala 
at Washington, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary on special mission at Paris; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI, by: 

Mr. Tertullien Guilbaud, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Haiti at Paris; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HEDJAZ, by: 
Mr. Rustem Haidar; 
Mr. Abdul Hadi Aguni; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS, by: 

Dr. Policarpo Bonilla, on special mission to Washington, 
formerly President of the Republic of Honduras, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA, by: 

The Honourable Charles Dunbar Burgess King, Secre- 
tary of State; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA, 
by: 

Mr. Salvador Chamorro, President of the Chamber of 
Deputies; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA, by: 
Mr. Antonio Burgos, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of Panama at Madrid; 

4 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF PERU, by: 

Mr. Carlos G. Candamo, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Peru at Paris; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC, by: 

Mr. Ignace J. Paderewski, President of the Council of 

Ministers, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Roman Dx\iowski, President of the Polish National 
Committee; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC, by: 

Dr. Affonso Augusto da Costa, formerly President of the 

Council of Ministers; 
Dr. Augusto Luiz Vieira Scares, formerly Minister for 

Foreign Affairs; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA, by: 

Mr. Ion I. C. Bratiano, President of the Council of 

Ministers, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
General Constantin Coanda, Corps Commander, A. D. 

C. to the King, formerly President of the Council of 

Ministers ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS, 
AND THE SLOVENES, by: 

Mr. Nicolas P. Pachitch, formerly President of the 

Council of Ministers; 
Mr. Ante Trumbic, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Milenko Vesnitch, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of the 
Serbs, the Croats and the Slovenes at Paris; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SIAM, by: 

His Highness Prince Charoon, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Siam 
at Paris; 

His Serene Highness Prince Traidos Prabandhu, Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHO-SLOVAK REPUBLIC, 
by: 

Mr. Karel Kramar, President of the Council of Ministers; 
Mr. Eduard Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF URUGUAY, by: 

Mr. Juan Antonio Buero, Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
formerly Minister of Industry; 



THE PEACE TREATIES 

GERMANY, by: 

Mr. Hermann Muller, Minister for Foreign Affairs of 

the Empire; 
Dr. Bell, Minister of the Empire ; 
Acting in the name of the German Empire and of each and 
every component State. 

WHO having communicated their full powers found in good 
and due form have AGREED AS FOLLOWS: 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of 
war will terminate. From that moment and subject to the pro- 
visions of this Treaty official relations with Germany, and with 
any of the German States, will be resumed by the Allied and 
Associated Powers. 

PART L 
THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

(The League of Nations covenant constitutes the first section of each 
treaty. It is here given in full text as Part One of the German treaty, and, 
to differentiate it from the digest of the remaining sections, is set in larger 
type.) 

The High Contracting Parties, 

In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve 
international peace and security 

by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, 
by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations 

between nations, 
by the firm establishment of the understandings of inter- 
national law as the actual rule of conduct among 
Governments, and 
by the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect 
for all treaty obligations in the dealings of organized 
peoples with one another. 
Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations. 

Article 1. 

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be 
those of the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this 
Covenant and also such of those other States named in the Annex 
as shall accede without reservation to this Covenant. Such 
accession shall be effected by a Declaration deposited with the 
Secretariat within two months of the coming into force of the 
Covenant. Notice thereof shall be sent to all other Members of 
the League. 

Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not 
named in the Annex may become a Member of the League if its 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT 



admission is agi'eed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, provided 
that it shall give onPective guarantees of its sincere intention to 
observe its international obligations, and shall accept such regula- 
tions as may be prescribed by the League in regard to its military, 
naval and air forces and armaments. 

Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of 
its intention so to do, withdrav/ from the League, provided that 
all its international obligations and all its obligations under this 
Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal. 

Article 2. 
The action of the League under this Covenant shall be 
effected through the instrumentality of an Assembly and of 
a Council, v/ith a permanent Secretariat. 

Article 3. 

The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members 
of the League. 

The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time 
to time as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at 
such other place as may be decided upon. 

The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter 
within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace 
of the world. 

At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League 
shsJl have one vote, and may have not more than three Repre- 
sentatives. 

Article 4. 

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers, together with Representatives 
of four other Members of the League. These four Members of 
the League shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time 
in its discretion. Until the appointment of the Representatives 
of the four Members of the League first selected by the Assembly, 
Representatives of Belgium, Brazil, Spain and Greece shall be 
members of the Council. 

With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the 
Council may name additional Members of the League whose Rep- 
resentatives shall always be members of the Council ; the Council 
with like approval may increase the number of Members of the 
League to be selected by the Assembly for representation on the 
Council. 

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may 
require, and at least once a year, at the Seat of the League, or at 
such other place as may be decided upon. 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter within 
the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the 
world. 

Any Member of the League not represented on the Council 
shall be invited to send a Representative to sit as a member 
at any meeting of the Council during the consideration of matters 
specially affecting the interests of that Member of the League. 

At meetings of the Council, each Member of the League 
represented on the Council shall have one vote, and may have 
not more than one Representative. 

Article 5. 

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant 
or by the terms of the present Treaty, decisions at any meet- 
ing of the Assembly or of the Council shall require the agree- 
ment of all the Members of the League represented at the meeting. 

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of 
the Council, including the appointment of Committees to investi- 
gate particular matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by 
the Council and may be decided by a majority of the Members 
of the League represented at the meeting. 

The first meeting of the Assembly and the first meeting of 
the Council shall be summoned by the President of the United 
States of America. 

Article 6. 

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat 
of the League. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary General 
and such secretaries and staff as may be required. 

The first Secretary General shall be the person named in the 
Annex; thereafter the Secretary General shall be appointed by the 
Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly. 

The secretaries and staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed 
by the Secretary General with the approval of the Council. 

The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meet- 
ings of the Assembly and of the Council. 

The expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members 
of the League in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses 
of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union. 

Article 7. 

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. 

The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the 
League shall be established elsewhere. 

All positions under or in connection with the League, including 
the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women. 

Representatives of the Members of the League and officials 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT 



of the League when engaged on the business of the League shall 
enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities. 

The buildings and other property occupied by the League or 
its officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be 
inviolable. 

Article 8. 

The Members of the League recognize that the maintenance 
of peace requires the reduction of national armaments to the 
lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement 
by common action of international obligations. 

The Council, taking account of the geographical situation 
and circumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such 
reduction for the consideration and action of the several Govern- 
ments. 

Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision 
at least every ten years. 

After these plans shall have been adopted by the several Gov- 
ernments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be 
exceeded without the concurrence of the Council. 

The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by 
private enterprise of munitions and implements of war is open 
to grave objections. The Council shall advise how the evil 
effects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due 
regard being had to the necessities of those Members of the 
League which are not able to manufacture the munitions and 
implements of war necessary for their safety. 

The Members of the League undertake to interchange full 
and frank information as to the scale of their armaments, their 
mihtary, naval and air programmes and the condition of such 
of their industries as are adaptable to war-like purposes. 

Article 9. 
A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the 
Council on the execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8 
and on mihtary, naval and air questions generally. 

Article 10. 
The Members of the League undertake to respect and pre- 
serve as against external aggression the territorial integrity 
and existing political independence of all Members of the League. 
In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger 
of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the meansby 
which this obligation shall be fulfilled. 

Article 11. 
Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any 
of the Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



of concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any 
action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the 
peace of nations. In case any such emergency should arise 
the Secretary General shall on the request of any Member of 
the League forthwith summon a meeting of the Council. 

It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member 
of the League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of 
the Council any circumstance whatever affecting international 
relations which threatens to disturb international peace or the 
good understanding between nations upon which peace depends. 

Article 12. 

The Members of the League agree that if there should arise 
between them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will 
submit the matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the 
Council, and they agree in no case to resort to war until three 
months after the award by the arbitrators or the report by the 
Council. 

In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators 
shall be made within a reasonable time, and the report of the 
Council shall be made within six months after the submission of 
this dispute. 

Article 13. 

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute 
shall arise between them which they recognize to be suitable 
for submission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily 
settled by diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter 
to arbitration. 

Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any ques- 
tion of international law, as to the existence of any fact which 
if estabhshed would constitute a breach of any international 
obligation, or as to the extent and nature of the reparation to 
be made for any such breach, are declared to be among those 
which are generally suitable for submission to arbitration. 

For the consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitra- 
tion to which the case is referred shall be the Court agreed on 
by the parties to the dispute or stipulated in any convention 
existing between them. 

The Members of the League agree that they will carry out 
in full good faith any award that may be rendered, and that 
they will not resort to war against a Member of the League 
which complies therewith. In the event of any failure to carry 
out such an award, the Council shall propose what steps should 
be taken to give effect thereto. 

JO 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT 



Article 14. 
The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of 
the League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Per- 
manent Court of International Justice. The Court shall be 
competent to hear and determine any dispute of an international 
character which the parties thereto submit to it. The Court 
may also give an advisory opinion upon any dispute or question 
referred to it by the Council or by the Assembly. 

Article 15. 

If there should arise between Members of the League any 
dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to 
arbitration in accordance with Article 13, the Members of the 
League agree that they will submit the matter to the Council. 
Any party to the dispute may effect such submission by giving 
notice of the existence of the dispute to the Secretary General, 
who wiU make ail necessary arrangements for a full investigation 
and consideration thereof. 

For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate 
to the Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements 
of their case with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council 
may forthwith direct the publication thereof. 

The Council shall endeavor to effect a settlement of the dis- 
pute, and if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be 
made public giving such facts and explanations regarding the 
dispute and the terms of settlement thereof as the Council may 
deem appropriate. 

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unani- 
mously or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report 
containing a statement of the facts of the dispute and the rec- 
ommendations wliich are deemed just and proper in regard 
thereto. 

Any Member of the League represented on the Council may 
make public a statement of the facts of the dispute and of its 
conclusions regarding the same. 

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the 
members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more 
of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League agree 
that thfiy will not go to war with any party to the dispute which 
complies with the recommendations of the report. 

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously 
agreed to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives 
of one or more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the 
League reserve to themselves the right to take such action as they 
shall consider necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. 

H 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, 
and is found by the Council, to arise out of a matter which by 
international law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of 
that party, the Council shall so report, and shall make no recom- 
mendation as to its settlement. 

The Council may in any case under this Article refer the 
dispute to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the 
request of either party to the dispute, provided that such request 
be made within fourteen days after the submission of the dispute 
to the Council. 

In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of 
this Article and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of 
the Council shall apply to the action and powers of the Assembly, 
provided that a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in by 
the Representatives of those Members of the League represented 
on the Council and of a majority of the other Members of the 
League, exclusive in each case of the Representatives of the 
parties to the dispute, shall have the same force as a report by 
the Council concurred in by all the members thereof other than 
the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute. 

Article 16. 

Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard 
of its covenants under Articles 12, 13 or 15, it shall ipso facto be 
deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Members 
of the League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it 
to the severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of 
all intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the 
covenant-breaking State, and the prevention of all financial, com- 
mercial or personal intercourse between the nationals of the 
covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State, 
whether a Member of the League or not. 

It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recom- 
mend to the several Governments concerned what effective 
military, naval or air force the Members of the League shall 
severally contribute to the armed forces to be used to protect 
the covenants of the League. 

The Members of the League agree, further, that they will 
mutually support one another in the financial and economic 
measures which are taken under this Article, in order to minimize 
the loss and inconvenience resulting from the above measures, 
and that they will mutually support one another in resisting 
any special measures aimed at one of their number by the covenant- 
breaking State, and that they will take the necessary steps to 
afford passage through their territory to the forces of any of the 

12 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT 



Members of the League which are co-operating to protect the coven- 
ants of the League. 

Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant 
of the League may be declared to be no longer a Member of 
the League by a vote of the Council concurred in by the Rep- 
resentatives of all the other Members of the League represented 
thereon. 

Article 17. 

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League 
and a State which is not a Member of the League, or between 
States not Members of the League, the State or States not Members 
of the League shall be invited to accept the obligations of member- 
ship in the League for the purposes of such dispute, upon such con- 
ditions as the Council may deem just. If such invitation is 
accepted, the provisions of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be 
applied with such modifications as may be deemed necessary by 
the Council. 

Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immedi- 
ately institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute 
and recommend such action as may seem best and most effectual 
in the circumstances. 

If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations 
of membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, 
and shall resort to war against a Member of the League, the 
provisions of Article 16 shall be applicable as against the State 
taking such action. 

If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to 
accept the obligations of membership in the League for the 
purposes of such dispute, the Council may take such measures 
and make such recommendations as will prevent hostilities and 
will result in the settlement of the dispute. 

Article 18. 

Every treaty or international engagement entered into 
hereafter by any Member of the League shall be forthwith regis- 
tered with the Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published 
by it. No such treaty or international engagement shall be bind- 
ing until so registered. v 

Article 19. 
The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsidera- 
tion by Members of the League of treaties which have become 
inapplicable and the consideration of international conditions 
whose continuance might endanger the peace of the world. 

13 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Article 20. 

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant 
is accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings inter se 
which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly 
undertake that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements 
inconsistent with the terms thereof. 

In case any ]\Iember of the League shall, before becoming a 
Member of the League, have undertaken any obligations incon- 
sistent with the terms of this Covenant, it shall be the duty of 
such Member to take immediate steps to procure its release from 
such obligations. 

Article 21. 
Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the 
vahdity of international engagements, such as treaties of arbitra- 
tion or regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for 
securing the maintenance of peace. 

Article 22. 

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of 
the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States 
which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by 
peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous 
conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the 
principle that the well-being and development of such peoples 
form a sacred trust of civilization and that securities for the 
performance of this trust should be embodied in this Covenant. 

The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is 
that the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced 
nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their 
geographical position can best undertake this responsibihty, and 
who are wiUing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be 
exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League. 

The character of the mandate must differ according to the 
stage of the development of the people, the geographical situation 
of the territory, its economic conditions and other similar cir- 
cumstances. 

Certain communities formerly belonging to the Tm'kish 
Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence 
as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject 
to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a 
Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The 
wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in 
the selection of the Mandatory. 

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such 

U 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT 



a stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the adminis- 
tration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee 
freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance 
of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the 
slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the preven- 
tion of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval 
bases and of military training of the natives for other than police 
purposes and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal 
opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of 
the League. 

There are territories, such as South- West Africa and certain 
of the South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of 
their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the 
centers of civilization, or their geographical contiguity to the 
territory of the Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best 
administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions 
of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the 
interests of the indigenous population. 

In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the 
Council £ui annual report in reference to the territory committed 
to its charge. 

The degiee of authority, control, or administration to be 
exercised by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon 
by the Members of the League, be explicitly defined in each case 
by the Council. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and 
examine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise 
the Council on all matters relating to the observance of the 
mandates. 

Article 23. 

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of interna- 
tional conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the 
Members of the League: 

(a) will endeavor to secure and maintain fan- and humane 
conditions of labor for men, women, and children, both in 
their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial 
and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish 
and maintain the necessary international organizations; 

(6) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabi- 
tants of territories under their control; 

(c) will entrust the League with the general supervision over 
the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and 
children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs ; 

(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of 

15 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



the trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which 
the control of this traffic is necessary in the common interest ; 

(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of 
communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the 
commerce of all Members of the League, In this connection, the 
special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of 
1914-1918 shall be borne in mind; 

(/) will endeavor to take steps in matters of international 
concern for the prevention and control of disease. 

Article 24. 

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all 
international bureaus already established by general treaties 
if the parties to such treaties consent. All such international 
bureaus and all commissions for the regulation of matters of 
international interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under 
the direction of the League, 

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by 
general conventions but which are not placed under the control of 
international bureaus or commissions, the Secretariat of the 
League shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired 
by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and 
shall render any other assistance which may be necessary or 
desirable. 

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secre- 
tariat the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed 
under the direction of the League. 

Article 25. 
The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote 
the establishment and co-operation of duly authorized voluntary 
national Red Cross organizations having as purposes the improve- 
ment of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of 
suffering throughout the world. 

Article 2G. 

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified 
by the Members of the League whose Representatives compose 
the Council and by a majority of the Members of the League 
whose Representatives compose the Assembly. 

No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League 
which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall 
cease to be a Member of the League. 

16 



LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT 



ANNEX. 

i. original hiembers of the league of nations signatories 
of the treaty of peace. 

United States of America. Haiti. 

Belgium. Hedjaz. 

Bolivia. Honduras. 

Brazil. Italy. 

British Empire. Japan. 

Canada. Liberia. 

Australia. Nicaragua. 

South Africa. Pana]\l\. 

New Zealand. Peru. 

India. Poland. 

*China. Portugal. 

Cuba. Roumania. 

Ecuador. Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

France. Siam. 

Greece. Czecho-Slovakia. 

Guatemala. Uruguay. 



states invited to accede to the covenant. 

Argentine Republic. Persia. 

Chili. Salvador. 

Colombia. Spain. 

Denmark. ' Sweden. 

Netherlands. Switzerland. 

Norway. Venezuela. 
Paraguay. 

ii. first secretary general of the league of nations. 

The Honourable Sir James Eric Druimmond, K. C. M. G., C. B. 



*Because of dissatisfaction with the terms of the treaty, the dele°:ates 
of China, acting on instructions from Peking, did not sign. Neither China 
nor its citizens are entitled to any benefits or subject to any obhgations of a 
contractual nature under a treaty to which that Government is not a party. 

— American Mission at Peace Conference. 

17 



THE PEACE TREATIES 

PART II 

CHANGES IN GERMAN BOUNDARIES 

Germany relinquishes to France all of Alsace-Lorraine, to Belgium two 
small districts between Holland and Luxemburg, and to Poland the Southeastern 
end of Silesia, including Oppeln, and the greater part of Posen and western 
Prussia, thus isolating eastern Prussia from the remainder of the empire by 
part of Poland. She relinquishes sovereignity over the northeastern end of 
eastern Prussia, which includes 40 square miles north of the river Memel, 
and the internationalized area around Danzig, consisting of a V between the 
rivers Nogat and Vistula, and a similiar strip of land on the west which takes 
in the city of Danzig. Rights of Sovereignity are given up over the Saar basin, 
containing 728 square miles between Bavaria and Luxemburg. The south- 
eastern third of eastern Prussia, and the area between eastern Prussia and the 
Vistula river north of latitude 63° 3', comprising 5,785 square miles, will 
decide nationality by popular vote, as will a part of Schleswig containing 
its 2,787 square miles. 

The boundaries of Germany wiil be determined as follows: 

1. With Belgiixm: 

From the point common to the three frontiers of Belgium, Holland and 
Germany and in a southerly direction: 

the north-eastern boundary of the former territory of neutral Moresnet, 
then the eastern boundary of the Kreis of Eupen, then the frontier between 
Belgium and the Kreis of Montjoie, then the north-eastern and eastern 
boundary of the Kreis of Malmedy to its junction with the frontier of Luxem- 
burg: 

2. With Luxemburg: 

The frontier of August 3, 1914, to its junction with the frontier of France 
of the 18th July, 1870. 

3. With France. 

The frontier of July IS, 1870, from Luxemburg to Switzerland with the 
reservations made in Article 48 of Section IV (Saar Basin) of Part IH. 

4. With Switzerland: 
The present frontier. 

5. With Austria: 

The frontier of August 3, 1914, from Switzerland to Czecbo-Slovakia 
as hereinafter defined. 

6. With Czechoslovakia: 

The frontier of August 3, 1914, between Germany and Austria from its 
junction with the old administrative boundary separating Bohemia and the 
province of Upper Austria to the point north of the salient of the old province 
of Austrian Silesia situated at about 9 kilometers east of Neustadt. 

18 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



7. With Poland: 

From the point, defined above to a point to be fixed on the ground about 
2 kilometers east of Lorzendorf : 

the frontier as it wifi be fixed in accordance with Article 88 of the present 
Treaty; 

thence in a northerly direction to the point where the administrative 
boundary of Posnania crosses the river Bartsch: 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following places in Poland: 
Skorischau, Trembatschau, Kunzendorf, Schlesie, Gross Kosel, Schreibersdorf, 
Bippin, FurstUch-Niefken, Pawelau, Tscheschen, Konradau, Johannisdorf, 
Modzenowe, Bogdaj, and in Germany: Lorzendorf, Kaulwitz, Glausche, Dal- 
bersdorf, Beesewitz, Stradam, Gross Wartenberg, Kraschen, Neu Middlewalde. 
Domaslawitz, Wedelsdorf, Tscheschen Hammer; 

thence the administrative boundary of Posnania north-westwards to 
the point where it cuts the Bawitsch-Hermstadt railway; 

thence to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania cuts 
the Beisen-Tschirnau road: 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Triebusch and Gabel 
and east of Saborwitz; 

thence the administrative boundary of Posnania to its junction with 
the eastern administrative boundary of the Kreis of Fraustadt; 

thence in a north-westerly direction to a point to be chosen on the ground 
between the villages of Unruhstadt and Kopnitz: 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Geyersdorf, Brenno, 
Fehlen, Altkloster, KJebel, and east of Ulbersdorf, Buchwald, Ilgen, Weinc, 
Lupitze, Schwenten; 

thence in a northerly direction to the northernmost point of Lake Chlop: 

a line to be fixed on the grouid following the median line of the lakes; 
the town and the station of Bentschen however (including the junction of the 
lines Schweibus-Bentschen and Zullichau-Bentschen) remaining in Polish 
territory; 

thence in a north-easterly direction to the point of junction of the boun- 
daries of the Kreise of Schwerin, Birnbaum and Meseritz: 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Betsche; 

thence in a northerly direction the boundary separating the Kreise of 
Schwerin and Birnbaum, then in an easterly direction the northern boundary 
of Posnania to the point where it cuts the river Netze; 

thence up stream to its confluence with the Kuddow; 

the course of the Netze; 

thence upstream to a point to be chosen about 6 kilometres southeast 
of Schneidemuhl; 

the course of the Kuddow; 

thence north-eastwards to the most southern point of the re-entant 
of the northern boundary of Posnania about 5 kilometres west of Stahren; 

19 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the Schneidemuhl-Konitz railway 
in this area entirely in German territory; 

thence the boundary of Posnania north-eastwards to the point of the 
salient it makes about 15 kilometres east of Flatow; 

thence north-eastwards to the point where the river Kamionka meets 
the southern boundary of the Kreis of Konitz about 3 kilometres north-east 
of Grunau; 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following places to Poland: 
Jasdrowo, Gr. Lutau, Kl. Lutau, Wittkau, and to Germany: Gr. Butzig, 
Cziskowo, Battrow, Bock, Grimau; 

thence in a northerly direction the boundary between the Kreise of 
Konitz and Schlochau to the point where this boundary cuts the river Brahe; 

thence to a point on the boundary of Pomcrania 15 kilometres east of 
Rummelsburg; 

a fine to be fixed on the ground leaving the following places in Poland: 
Konarzin, Kelpia, Adl. Briesen, and in Germany: Sampohl, Neuguth, Steinfort 
Gr. Peterkau; 

then the boundary of Pomerania in an easterly direction to its junction 
with the boundary between the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau; 

thence northwards the boundary between Pomerania and West Prussia 
to the point on the river Rheda about 3 kilometres northwest of Gohra where 
that river is joined by a tributary from the north-west; 

thence to a point to be selected in the bend of the Plasnitz river about 
IH kilometres north-west of Warschkau: 

a line to be fixed on the ground; 

thence this river downstream, then the median fine of Lake Zarnowitz, 
then the old boundary of West Prussia to the Baltic Sea. 

8. Wilh Denmark: 

The frontier as it will be fixed in accordance -ffiith Articles 109 to 111 of 
Part III, Section XII (Schleswig), 



20 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 

PART III 

EUROPEAN POLITICAL CLAUSES 

The Scrap of Paper 

Germany agrees to the abrogation of the treaties of 1839 under the terms 
of which Belgium was established as a neutral state (the scrap of paper). 
She agrees in advance to any treaty or arrangement the allied and associated 
governments shall conclude in heu of the 1839 conventions. 

Belgian Sovereignty 

Germany agrees to recognize the full sovereignty of Belgium over the 
territory of Moresnet and over a portion of Prussian Moresnet and to surrender 
in favor of Belgium all rights over the circles of Eupen and Malmedy, the 
inhabitants of which may within six months protest against this change of 
sovereignty in whole or in part, final decision to be reserved to the League of 
Nations. 

Alliance With Luxemburg Canceled 

Germany renounces her treaties and conventions with the Grand Duchy 
of Luxemburg and agrees that that territory ceased to be a part of the German 
Zoliverein from January 1, 1919. She surrenders all rights of exploitation 
of Luxemburg railways and adheres to the abrogation of the Grand Duchy's 
neutraUty, accepting in advance any international agreement reached by the 
aUied and associated powers in connection with Luxembm-g. 

Rhine Fortresses to be Demolished 

Germany agrees to the demohtion of the armed fortresses (the iron ring 
which constituted the traditional Wacht am Rhine) in a zone fifty kilometres 
wide along the Left Bank of the Rhine. She will maintain no armed forces 
in this zone, conduct no manoeuvers and reteiin no facilities there for mobiHza- 
tion. (This territory has been regarded by the allied and associated govern- 
mcEts as a specially vulnerable danger point and the League of Nations 
Covenant — (q.v.) — provides that violation of this paragraph will be regarded 
as an affront against the peace of the world. 

Saar Coal Fields Ceded to France 

Germany cedes to France full ownership, unencumbered and free of debt, 
of the coal mines of the Saar Basin, with their subsidiaries, accessories and 
facilities, by way of compensation for destruction during the war of French 
coal mines and in partial reparation. The definite value for the purpose of 
crediting on the reparation account is to be later determined by the reparation 
commission. French rights in this territory shall be governed by German 
law in force at the signing of the armistice, excepting war legislation, but 
France shall replace German owners by French, it being understood that 
Germany undertakes to indemnify the German ovvTiers. Under the terms, 
France will continue to furnish the present supplies of coal for local consump- 
tion and wUl pay a just proportion of local taxes. 

21 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



As defined, the Saar Basin extends from the Lorraine frontier northward 
to Stwendel, including on the west the valley of the Saar as far as Saarholzbach 
and on the east the town of Homburg. 

The Saar Basins will be governed by a commission appointed by the 
League of Nations. There will be five members as follows: One French, 
a native of the Saar, three representing three different countries other than 
France or Germany. A chairman, designated by the League, shall act as 
executive. This commission will have full powers of government. This 
Commission shall administer railways and other pubUc utilities and interpret 
the treaty clauses. Local courts will continue subject to the commission, 
which may modify the existing German legislation after consultation with a 
local representative assembly which it will organize. The commission can 
regulate taxes but local taxes shall be approved by the assembly. Labor 
laws shall be in harmony with local wishes and the League of Nations program. 
French and other labor may be freely utihzed, the French having permission 
to belong to French labor unions, Germany and the Saar commission shall 
maintain all rights acquired as to pensions and social insurance. A local 
gendarmerie shall maintain local order but there shall be no mihtary service. 
The people will preserve their local assembhes, religious liberties, schools, 
language, nationality and may vote on local questions. Provision is made for 
changmg nationality at option and facility as to disposition of property is 
given those desiring to leave. The territory will be affected by the French 
Customs Systems, with no export tax on coal and metallurgical products 
going to Germany, nor on German imports into the Basin for local consumption. 
There will be no restriction on circulation of French money. 

After fifteen years, a plebiscite shall determine the future course: whether 
under the League of Nations, union with France or with Germany. Residents 
over twenty years of age at the signing of the treaty shall vote. A certain 
review of this plebiscite is reserved to the League. Provision is made for ulti- 
mate pm-chase by Germany of the mines under certain conditions. 

Return of Alsace-Lorraine 

Germany restores the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine on a basis which 
will set up as nearly as possible the situation as it existed prior to the Franco- 
Prussia War of 1870-71 when they were wrested from France. She accepts the 
moral obUgation for the seizure of these territories and the treatment of the 
people. The frontiers of the provinces are defined precisely as when taken by 
the Germans under the treaty of Frankfort, the restoration to take effect 
from the signing of the armistice. The provinces are returned free of all public 
debt — that is, as French states, Alsace and Lorraine are not liable for any pari 
of any debts for which they would be liable as portions of Germany. 

The citizenship of the provinces is handled in three classifications: 
French citizenship is immediately restored to one class composed of those 
who were French before 1871; a second class may make application for citizen- 
ship, and a third class may become naturalized within three years. This 

22 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



class includes German residents and gives them an opportunity to remain in 
the provinces. 

This clause further provides that all property belonging to German 
ex-sovereigns passes to France without compensation. Also, France talces 
the place of the old German government as to the national railways and public 
utihty concessions. The Rhine bridges and the responsibility for their upkeep 
also pass to France. 

Manufactm-ed products of Alsace-Lorraine shall be admitted to Germany 
free of duty for five years, provided that such exports to Germany shall not 
in any one year exceed a total amount equal to the shipments to Germany on 
the basis of a three-year pre-war average. Textile materials may be admitted 
from Germany into the provinces and re-exported free of duty. Contracts 
for electric power from the Right Bank of the Rhine (German territory) 
shall endure for ten years. 

The Central Rhine Commission shall appoint a French Demonstrator 
who, for a period of seven years, which maybe extended to ten, shall administer 
the ports of Kehl and Strasburg as a single unit, property rights in both ports 
being safeguarded and equality of treatment given as respects traffic to the 
nationals and goods of every country. 

Excepting for the right withheld by France to annul in the pubhc interest, 
contracts between AIsace-Lorraineers and Germans are vaUd. For the most 
part, judgments of courts hold as between Germans and Alsace-Lorraineers, 
but in certain cases a judicial exequatur is required to vaUdate. 

PoUtical condemnations visited by the Germans are null and void and 
war fines exacted must be repaid. 

Certain further specific details are left for adjustment in later minor 
conventions between France and Germany. 

France, on six months' notice, may have canceled any contract, excepting 
debts incurred before the armistice, but if loss is thereby imposed, remunera- 
tion shall be paid on the basis of capital employed. 

Independence of German Austria 

Germany recognizes the complete independence of the new state of 
German-Austria and ratifies the boundaries traced. 

Independence of Czechoslovakia 

Germany recognizes the complete independence of the new state of 
Czechoslovakia, including the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians south 
of the Carpathians. . She accepts in advance the boimdaries to be determined 
upon, which, in the case of the German frontier, shall follow the frontier of 
Bosnia as it ran in 1914. Details as to self-determination of the people in 
respect of nationahty and change thereof are agreed to. 

Establishment of Poland 

The new state of Poland is erected by agreement of Germeuiy to cede the 
greater part of Upper Silesia, West Prussia and Posen. A boundary commis- 
sion composed of five members representing the allied and associated powers 

23 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



and one representing Germany and one Poland is to be constituted within 
fifteen days after the signing of the peace to definitely align the boundaries. 
Provision is made for later treaties with Poland and the powers relating 
to self-determination of races, reUgions, matters of commerce, etc. 
East Prussia and Memel Clauses 

Plebiscites are provided for estabhshing the frontiers of these provinces, 
German troops are to evacuate and a joint commission of the powers is to 
arrange the vote for self determination of sovereignty. 
Danzig a Free Cily 

Danzig and its district are constituted a free city under guarantees of the 
League of Nations and a resident of the city and a high commission of the 
League shall arrange details of a constitution. A joint commission of three 
representing the aUied powers, one for Germany and one for Poland shall 
arrange and delimit boundaries. A convention shall be reached between 
Danzig and Poland whereby the city shall be included within the Polish 
customs frontiers. A free port is provided at Danzig and Poland's use of the 
port is guaranteed together with free use of utiUties and communications and 
protection for PoUsh nationals. 
The Danish Frontier — Schleswig 

Germany agrees that ten days after the signing of the treaty German 
troops shall evacuate the region north of a line running from the mouth of the 
Schlei, south of Kappel, Schleswig and Friedrichstadt along the Eider to the 
North Sea, south of Tonning, the workmen's and soldiers' councils shall be 
dissolved and the territory administered by an international commission of 
five including a representative from Norway and one from Sweden. Under the 
auspices of this commission secret votes shall be taken by the people to deter- 
mine under what sovereignty they shall live. Three zones are dehmited, each 
extending farther southward than the previous and the people of each zone 
shall vote at stated times. The commission will draw the frontier on the basis 
of the returns of these plebiscites. Germany agrees to hand over to Denmark 
all territory north of the frontier thus drawn. 

Abolition of the Heligoland Forts 

Germany agrees to absolute demoUtion, under supervision of the allies, 
of all fortresses, military estabhshments, harbors and works on the islands of 
HeUgoland and Dune, the demolition to be by German labor and at German 
expense. They may not be restored. 

Russian Clauses 

Germany agrees to the absolute cancellation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty 
with the Maximalist goverrmient in Russia and agrees to respect as permanent 
and inalienable the independence of all territories which were a part of the 
former Russian empire. She agrees further to recognize the treaties made by 
the allied and associated powers with the new states which contain parts of 
the old Russian Empire, that is she agrees to recognize the new states. On 
behalf of Russia, the allies reserve to her the right to obtain restitution and 
reparation on the principles of the present treaty. 

24 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 

PART IV 

EXTRA EUROPEAN CLAUSES 

German Non-European Rights — Relinquishment of Colonies 

Germany agrees to renunciation of all her former rights outside Europe 
including rights, title and privileges to her own and her alUes' territories and 
she agrees to accept whatever disposition is made of these holdings by the 
allied and associated governments. 

Colonies and Overseas Possessions 

Germany agrees to renounce in favor of the allied and associated govern- 
ments her overseas possessions and movable and immovable property in them 
passes to the govermnent which shall hereafter be selected to exercise juris- 
diction. Repatriation of nationals and disposition of business shall he wholly 
with the new goverimient which shall lay down the conditions under which Ger- 
mans may reside and hold property in these colonies. 

The Cameroons 

Germany undertakes to pay damages suffered by the French in the 
Cameroons or the frontier zone through acts of German civil and military 
authorities and of individual Germans from January 1, 1900 to August 1, 1914. 
Germany renounces all rights under the treaty of November 4, 1911 and 
that of September 29, 1912 relating to Equatorial Africa and undertakes to 
pay France all deposits, credits, advances, etc., in accordance with an estimate 
to be made by the reparation commission. The right of the alUed and asso- 
ciated governments to regulate African traffic in arms and spirits is agreed to. 

Chinese Clauses 

All privileges and indemnities accruing to Germany as a result of the 
Boxer protocol of 1901 and all buildings, arsenals, wireless plants and other 
public property, excepting diplomatic or consular estabUshments in German 
concessions in Tientsin and Hankow and in other Chinese territory excepting 
Kiaochow are renounced by Germany in favor of China. Germany agrees 
to return to China at German expense all the antique astronomical instruments 
seized at the time of the Boxer uprising. Without the consent of the signa- 
tories to the Boxer protocol, however, China will take no measiu-es for the 
disposition of German property in the Legation Quarter at Peking. The 
tariff arrangements of August 29, 1902 and the Whang-Poo arrangement of 
September 27, 1905, with the supplementary arrangement of April 4, 1912 
remain in force except as to Germany. 

Germany accepts abrogation of her concessions at Hankow and Tientsin 
and China agrees to open them to international use, private property rights 
being respected. AH claims against China for miUtary measures taken by the 
latter during the war, such as interimaent of nationals and sequestration or 
liquidation of German property since August 14, 1917 are renounced by Ger- 
many. Germany renoimces in favor of Great Britain her State property in 

25 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



the British concession at Canton and in favor of France and China jointly 
the German school in the French concession at Shanghai. 

Siam 

Germany agrees to recognize cessation of all agreements between herself 
and Siam, including the right of extra territory, as of July 22, 1917, and re- 
Unquishes to Siam without compensation all German pubhc property in that 
State excepting consular and diplomatic premises. German private property 
will be dealt with in accordance with the economic clauses of the Treaty. 
Measures taken by Siam during the war such as seizure of ships, internment of 
nationals, etc., are not subject to claim by Germany. 

German Influence in Liberia Destroyed 

Germany agrees to reimnciation of all rights regarding Liberia, as defined 
under the agreement of 1911-12. She renounces her right to nominate a 
receiver of customs and her rights in settlement of the country. She recog- 
nizes Liberia's right to determine the status of Germans in Liberia and recog- 
nizes abrogation of former commercial treaties and arrangements, as of 
August 4, 1917. 

Morocco 

Germany renounces all rights and privileges under the act of Algeciras 
and the Franco-German agreements of 1909 and 1911 as to Morocco and also 
renounces treaties and arrangements with the Sherifian Government and she 
agrees not to intervene in negotiations between Morocco and France or other 
powers. She acknowledges supremacy of the French Protectorate in Morocco. 
Complete hberty of action as to Germans in Morocco is given the Sherifian 
Government and German citizens shall be subject to the common law. Ger- 
man movable and immovable property including Crown holdings — may be sold 
at auction, including mining rights, the proceeds going to the Sherifian Govern- 
ment and the amount deducted on the reparation account. Moroccan goods 
shall enter Germany on the same basis with French goods and Germany 
reUnquishes her interests in the State Bank of Morocco. 

British Protectorate in Egypt Recognized 

Germany recognizes the British Protectorate in Egypt, declared Decem- 
ber 18, 1914 and renounces as from August 4, 1914, treaties, agreements, etc. 
between herself and Egypt. Germany will not intervene in negotiations 
between Egypt and Great Britain or the other powers. The powers given 
to the late Sultan of Turkey for securing the free navigation of the Suez 
Canal are transferred to Great Britain. Anglo-Egyptian goods shall enter 
Germany on the same basis with British goods and provision is made in detail 
for the handling of matters of German nationals, a clause permitting German 
consent to changes in relation to the conamission of public debt. German 
property is confiscated. British Consular Tribunals shall act temporarily as 
courts. 

Treaties with Turkey and Bulgaria to be Recognized 

Germany agrees to accept any arrangements made between the allied 

26 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



and associated powers and Turkey and Bulgaria with reference to interests 
in those countries claimed by Germany and her nationals. 

Abdication in Far East — Sliantung 

Germany agrees to transfer to Japan aU her rights, titles, privileges, etc., 
in Kiaochow, including railroads, mines and cables, and she agrees to similar 
abdication of her rights throughout Shantung. All German rights to the 
Tsingtao-Tsinaufu Railroad, including all facUities and mining and exploita- 
tion rights also are transferred to Japan; also the cables from Tsingtao to 
Shanghai and Chefoo. All German State property, movable or immovable, in 
Kiaocshow, is tremsferred to Japan free of all charges. 



PART V 

RESTRICTION OF MILITARY FORCES 

As the initial step to the general limitation of armaments of all nations, 
the demobilization of the German army must take place within two months 
of peace. Its strength after March 31, 1920 may not exceed 100,000, including 
4,000 officers, and comprising not more than seven divisions of infantry and 
three of cavalry, and to be used exclusively for the maintenance of internal 
order and control of the frontiers. MUitary divisions inay not be grouped 
under more than two army corps headquarters staffs, thus abohshing the 
German general staff. The administrative serAace of the army, comprising 
the civihan personnel, not included in the niunber of effectives, is reduced to 
one-tenth of the total in the 1913 budget. Customs officers, first gueuds, 
coast guards and similar employes, may not exceed the ninnber in 1913. 
Gendarmes and local police may be increased only in accordance with the 
growth of the population, and none of them assembled for mihtary training. 
All mimitions plants and arsenals, unless specifically exempted, must be closed 
within three months of peace. The exact amount of armament and munitions 
is specified and excesses must be surrendered or destroyed. Manufacture or 
importation of asphyxiating and analogous gases and liquids is forbidden, 
as well as the importation and exportation of war materials. Conscription is 
abolished and voluntary enlistments for terms of twelve consecutive years 
substituted. Discharges before the expiration of that period may not exceed 
5 per cent of the effectives. Officers who remain in the service must agree to 
remain until 45 years of age, and new officers must serve actively for 25 years. 
Only military schools that are indispensable to the units allowed shall exist 
two months after peace. Universities and educational estabUshments, shoot- 
ing and touring clubs and societies of discharged soldiers may not occupy 
themselves with mihtary matters. All mobUization measures are forbidden. 
Germany may not send mihtary missions to other coimtrles. Fortresses and 
fortified and field works of all kinds within a zone of 50 kilometres of the 
Rhine must be dismantled within three months of peace, and the construction 
of others is forbidden. The fortified works on the southern and eastern 

27 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



frontiers may remain. Interallied commissions will establish headquarters 
at the German seat of government to supervise the execution of the terms of 
disarmament. Germany must give them complete facilities, pay their expenses, 
and the expenses of the execution of the treaty terms, including labor and 
necessary material. 

Restriction of Naval Forces 

Naval forces must be demobilized within two months after peace. After 
that time Germany will be allowed 6 small battleships, 6 hght cruisers, 12 
destroyers, 12 torpedo boats, and a personnel of 15,000 men, including officers. 
She may have neither military nor commercial submarines, nor reserve forces 
of men. Voluntary service only is permitted, with a minimum period of 
25 years service for officers and 12 for men. No member of the German 
mercantile marine may have naval training. All German war vessels in 
foreign ports and waters will be sm-rendered and the final disposition of them 
decided by the allied and associated powers. All war vessels and submarines 
under construction must be broken up within three months, and Germany 
must smrender modern destroyers, modem torpedo boats and all submarines 
and salvage boats. Replacement of ships except those lost may take place 
only at the end of 20 years for battleships and 15 years for destroyers. Mines 
in the North and Baltic seas must be swept up as decided upon by the Allies. 
All fortifications defending passages through the belts on the Baltic must be 
demolished. The number and caliber of the gims of other coast defenses may 
not be increased. For three months after peace the wireless stations at Nauen, 
Hanover and Berlin may send only commercial messages and imder the super- 
vision of the allied and associated governments. No additional stations may be 
constructed. Germany may repair submarine cables that have been cut and 
are not being used by the aUied and associated powers. Fourteen parts of 
cables removed will be restored to Germany. 

Restriction of Air Forces 

The entire air personnel is to be demobilized within two months after 
peace except for 1,000 officers and men to be retained until October. Germany 
may retain 100 unarmed seaplanes until October 1 to search for submarine 
mines. All dirigibles are prohibited, as well as aviation grounds and dirigible 
sheds within 150 kilometers of the Rhine or the eastern or southern frontiers. 
The manufacture of aircraft and parts is forbidden for six months. All 
aeronautical material must be surrendered within three months, except 
seaplanes already specified. 



28 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 

PART VI 

PRISONERS OF WAR AND SOLDIERS' GRAVES 

A commission of allied and German representatives will carry out without 
delay at Germany's expense the repatriation of German prisoners and interned 
civilians. The Allies wiU determine the cases of German nationals who do not 
desire to be repatriated. Germany will accord facilities to commissions of 
inquiry in collecting information concerning missing prisoners of war, and 
imposing penalties on German officials who have concealed allied nationals. 
There wiU be a reciprocal exchange of information as to dead prisoners and 
their graves, and both parties will respect and maintain the graves of soldiers 
and sailors buried within their respective territories. Germany will assist 
£my commission of an aUied or associated government in identifying, register- 
ing, maintaining and erecting suitable monuments over the graves, and each 
will afford all facihties for repatriating the remains of their soldiers. 

PART VII 

SURRENDER AND TRIAL OF THE EX-KAISER 

Surrender of the Ex-Kaiser is to be requested of HoUand, a special 
tribunal composed of one judge from each of the principal great powers set up, 
and the Ex-Kaiser arraigned with fuU guarantees of the right of defense 
"for a supreme offense against international morahty and the sanctity of 
treaties." The tribunal will be guided by the "highest motives of interna- 
tional pohcy" and will fix the punishment it feels should be meted out. Other 
individuals accused of acts in violation of the laws and customs of war Eire 
to be tried and punished by military tribunals rmder military law. If the 
changes relate to nationals of only one state, the accused will be tried before a 
tribunal of that state; if they affect nationals of several states they will be 
tried before joint tribuneds. Germany will hand over all persons so accused 
and aU documents and information required to insure full knowledge of 
incriminating acts, discovery of offenders and the determination of responsi- 
bility. 



29 



THE PEACE TREATIES 
PART VIII 

REPARATION AND RESTITUTION 

Responsibility for the War 

On this point the text of the treaty reads: "The allied and associated 
governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibiUty of herself and 
her allies for causing aU of the loss and damage to which the aUied and asso- 
ciated governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence 
of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." 

This clause recites that it is realized that Germany is incapable of making 
complete financial reparation of the damage caused, but it Usts under seven 
headings the categories for which reparation will be enforced: 

(a) Damage by personal injury to civilians caused by acts of war, on land 
and sea, directly or indirectly, including air raids. 

(6) Damage caused to civilians, including exposure at sea, resulting from 
acts of cruelty, and to civiHans in occupied territory. 

(c) Damage caused by maltreatment of prisoners. 

(d) Damages to the allied peoples represented by pensions and reparation 
allowances, capitafized at the signature of the treaty. 

(e) Damages to property other than naval or military materials. 

(/) Damage by enforced labor of civilians (the Belgian deportations). 

(g) Damages in the form of fines and levies imposed on the people of 
occupied towns and territories. 
Payment of Belgium's Debts 

Germany agrees to repay with 6% interest all sums borrowed by Belgium 
from her allies up to November 11, 1918 as a result of Germany's violation 
of the treaty of 1839. To effect this Germany will at once hand over to the 
reparation commission five per cent, gold bonds maturing in 1926. 
Assessment of Damage 

The total obfigation of Germany to pay under the seven headings above 
enumerated shall be determined not later than May 1, 1921, by an inter-allied 
reparation commission which shaU hold hearings. Payments in hquidation of 
these damages shall be drawn into a schedule extending over thirty years, 
payments being subject to postponement in certain contingencies. The work 
of this commission is to be aided by Germany by such information and legisla- 
tion as shall be necessary and the commission's authority is expressly recog- 
nized by Germany. Germany shall enact the necessary legislation to make the 
commission's finding effective. She agrees immediately to restore certain 
identifiable cash and articles. 
Indemnity Instalment in Two Years 

Germemy agrees, as an immediate step toward restoration, to pay to 
the aUies within two years the simi of one thousand million pounds sterling 
($4,860,000,000 at normal exchange), this payment to be in gold, goods, ships 
or other specific forms. It is understood that this payment is not additional 
to the first one thousand million pound sterling bond issue, hereafter referred 
to, and it is understood that certain expenses, such as those of the army of 
occupation and for food, etc., may be deducted at the discretion of the allies. 

30 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



Prvorily Status of Indemnity 

Germany agrees to permit the allied and associated governments periodically 
to examine her systems of taxation to determine that the tax burden is suffi- 
ciently heavy and it is expressly understood that the claims due the allies 
are a first hen upon the German resources, no domestic indebtedness taJung 
precedence for hquidation. The treaty further says: "The measures which 
the aUied and associated governments shall have the right to take, in case of vol- 
untary default by Germany, and which Germany agrees not to regard as acts 
of war, may include economic and financial prohibitions and reprisals, and in 
general such other measures as the respective governments may determine 
to be necessary in the circmnstanoes." 

The Reparation Commission 

The reparation commission shall be constituted as follows: One repre- 
sentative each of the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy and Belgium, 
a representative of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or Japan taking the place of 
the Belgian Commissioner when the interests of either country are particularly 
at stake. When the claims of any other powers are being considered, that 
power shall have representation but without vote. Germany shall be permitted 
to give evidence as to her ability to pay. The reparation commission shall make 
its headquarters at Paris, shall determine its personnel and procedure, shall 
have general control of all reparation matters, and shall be the exclusive 
agency of the alhed and associated powers for receiving, holding, selling and 
distributing reparation payments. 

Procedure of Commission 

The commission must be unanimous in its decisions on questions involving 
the sovereignty of any of the aUies, cancellation of German obhgations, time 
and manner of selling, distributing and negotiating bonds issued by Germeiny, 
questions of postponement between 1921 and 1926 of annual payments beyond 
1930 and any postponement after 1926 for more than three years; questions of 
assessment of damage and interpretations of provisions. On all other questions, 
majority vote wiU prevail. A nation may withdraw from representation 
on the commission but must give twelve months' notice. This commission 
may require special issues of bonds from Germany to secure unpaid cleums. 

Indemnity Bond Issues 

Bond issues are required of Germany on account of the claims and in 
acknowledgment of the whole, as follows: One thousand miUion pounds 
sterhng ($4,860,000,000) maturing not later than May 1, 1921, without 
interest; two thousand miUion pounds sterhng ($9,720,000,000) bearing 
2}4 per cent, interest between 1921 and 1926 and thereafter 5 per cent, with a 
1 per cent, sinking fund, payment thereto beginning in 1926 and an imdertak- 
ing to deliver bonds to an additional amount to two thousand millions pound 
sterling, at 5 per cent, under terms to be fixed by the commission. The 
interest is to be 5 per cent, unless otherwise determined by the commission 
in the future and payments, other than gold may be accepted by the commis- 
si 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



sion in the form of properties, commodities, businesses, concessions, rights, etc. 
Certificates of beneficial interest representing such payments by Germany 
may be issued by the commission to payees. 

Restitution for Destroyed Shipping 

Germany recognizes the right of the allies to the replacement ton for ton 
of merchant ships and fishing boats lost or damaged owing to the war. She 
agrees to cede to the aUies all merchant ships of 1,600 tons gross and upward, 
one-half of her ships between 1,600 and 1,000 tons gross and one-quarter of 
her steam trawlers and fishing boats. The commission will receive these 
vessels within two months, free of encmnbrance. Germany further agrees 
during the next five years to buUd for the account of the allies merchant 
ships to the extent of not more than 200,000 tons annually. All inland naviga- 
tion ships taken by Germany in the war are to be returned within two montiis, 
any discrepancy in this restoration to be made up by transfer of German Rhine 
ships up to 20 per cent, of that fleet. 

Restoring Devastated Areas 

Germany agrees to undertake the restoration of the devastated war areas 
and the reparation commission is authorized to require Germany to replace 
destroyed articles, animals, machinery, etc., and to manufacture materials 
required for reconstruction, due regard being had meanwhile to Germany's 
essential domestic requirements. Within three months, Germany agrees to 
dehver to France 238,000 animals and to Belgium 137,400 animals, including 
horses, cattle and sheep. 

Payments in Coal 

Germany agrees to dehver to France 7,000,000 tons of coal a year and 
annually for ten years, an amount of coal equivalent to the difference between 
annual pre-war output of Nord and Pas de Calais mines and annual production 
during the next ten years. She agrees to deliver ten million tons in addition 
to Belgium and from four and one-half miUion to eight and one-half million 
tons to Italy, the amounts being graduated upward from 1919 to 1924, prices 
to be prescribed. Luxemburg's needs also are to be supphed. Coke may be 
delivered in place of coal in the ratio of three tons to four. Germany further 
agrees to make deliveries to France for three years of benzol, coal tar and sul- 
phate of ammonia. Should these deliveries interfere with industrial conditions 
in Germany the commission may alter the requirements. 

Dyes and Chemicals 

Germany agrees to give the reparation commission an option on dyestuffs 
and chemicals, including quinine, up to fifty per cent, of the total stock in 
Germany on the effective date of the treaty and a similar option each sLx 
months to the end of 1924 up to twenty-five per cent, of the previous six 
months' output. As to detailed priorities and terms of these dehveriee, the 
Reparation Commission shall haA'^e authority and notice shall be given Germany 
in advance of dates required for delivery. 

32 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



Transfer of German Cables 

Germany agrees to transfer of specified cables desired by the allies, their 
N'alue being credited against the reparation account. 

Special Provisions 

Germany agrees to hand over records, antiques, works of art, etc., taken 
from Lou vain and other places to Belgium; the skull of the Sultan of Okwawa, 
a valuable poUtical tahsman, to the King of England; the Koran of the 
Cahph Othman to the King of the Hedjaz, and certain flags and papers, seized 
in the Franco-Prussian war, to France. 



PART IX 

FINANCIAL PROVISIONS 

Assumption of German Pre-War Debt 

The Powers to which German territory is ceded agree to assume a portion 
of the German pre-war debt which shall be determined by the reparation com- 
mission on the basis of the ratio between the revenue of the ceded territory 
and Germany's total revenues for the three years preceding the war, excepting 
France shall not assume any of Germany's pre-war debt which might be allo- 
cated to Alsace-Lorraine, nor will Poland assume any German pre-war debt 
created for the oppression of Poland. Any excess in value of German pubhc 
property in these territories, over the amount of debt assumed shedl be credited 
on the reparation accoimt, except as to Alsace-Lorraine. Mandatories will not 
assume any such debts or give credit for German Goverrmient property. 
Germany renoimces right of representation in State banks, commissions 
or other similar international economic or financial bodies. 

Cost of Armies of Occupation 

Germany agrees to pay the cost of the armies of occupation from the 
signing of the armistice so long as they are maintained, this to be a first charge 
on German resources, reparation being the next charge after payment for 
relief provisions. 

Germany agrees to yield up to the aUied and associated governments 
all money deposited in Germany, Turkey and Austria-Hungary in connection 
with war loans granted those coimtries by her and to transfer to the Allies 
all claims against Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria or Turkey in cormection with 
agreements made during the war. Germany's renunciation of the treaties of 
Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest specifically includes the financial clauses. 

Expropriation of German Funded Interests 

Germany agrees, on request of the reparation commission, to expropriate 
rights or interests of Germans in pubhc utilities in ceded territories or those 
under mandates and in Turkey, China, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria 
and transfer them to the commission, which will give credit for the value. 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Brazilian Coffee Indemnity 

Germany agrees to repay to Brazil the proceeds of the sale of Sao Paulo 
coffee which she refused to permit Brazil to withdraw from Germany on the 
outbreak of the war. 

Gold Embargo 

Up to May 1, 1921 the German government may neither export nor 
permit the export or disposal of gold without the previous consent of the 
Reparation Commission. 

Acceptable Tender 

The financial clauses specially provide that when any monetary obligation 
is imposed by the Treaty in terms of gold marks, the creditors shall have the 
option of receiving in payment pounds sterling at London, gold dollars at New 
York, gold francs at Paris or gold lire at Rome; gold coin being defined as 
being of the weight and fineness of law of January 1, 1914. 



PART X 

ECONOMIC CLAUSES 

Customs Duties Restricted 

As to customs duties, the Allies shall have most favored nation treatment. 
Germany agrees to impose no customs duties higher than the lowest in force in 
1914 and for certain wines, agricultural products, vegetable oils, artificial siUt 
and washed or scoured wool this restriction shall be maintained for two and a 
half years and may be extended by the commission. No customs tariff what- 
ever shall be imposed on goods originating in Alsace-Lorraine for a period of 
five years and of three years as to goods originating in former German territory 
ceded to Poland. Those governments fixing the amounts of goods to enjoy 
these privileges. A reservation is made as to Luxemburg. 

Freedom of German Ports 

Germany agrees to accord ships of the allied and associated powers for a 
period of five years the same rights in German ports as German vessels and to 
accord most favored nation treatment in fishing, coastwise trade and towage, 
including territorial waters. After the five-year period the arrangements shall 
be continued under reciprocity, subject to changes by the League of Nations. 
She agrees to permit ships of nations having no seacoast to register from 
German ports. 

Unfair Competition 

Germany agrees to give trade of the aUied and associated powers adequate 
safeguards against unfair competition and she agrees to respect laws and 
judicial decisions respecting regional appellations of wines and spirits. She 
shall have special care to suppress false wrappings, markings and such trade 

34 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



trickery. Should the German government engage in international trade, 
it shall have no special immimities. 

Treatment of Foreigners 

Germany agrees for five years to lay no special taxes or restrictions upon 
nationals of the alhes and, unless the League of Nations acts, for an additional 
five years German nationahty shall not continue to attach to a person who has 
become a national of an aUied or associated state. 

Multilateral Conventions — Railroads, Telegraph 

Germany is permitted to renew some forty multilateral treaties with the 
aUied and associated powers but special conditions are required as to some of the 
conventions, notably the postal and telegraph agreements. She must make 
reciprocal agreements with other powers and agrees in advance to the new con- 
vention to be drawn respecting international wireless traffic. The alfied and 
associated powers reserve to themselves for five years sole rights of inspection 
and police as to the North Sea fisheries and the North Sea fiquor traffic. 
Germany agrees in advance to adhere to the new international railway con- 
vention. 

Relief of Nations from Obligations to Germany 

The following nations are refieved of their obligations toward Germany 
as to the following matters: China as to the Chinese customs tariff, the 1905 
Whangpoo arrangements and the Boxer indemnity of 1901 ; France, Portugal 
and Roumania as to The Hague Convention of 1903 relating to civil procedure; 
and Great Britain and the United States as to Article 3 of the Samoan Treaty 
of 1899, which gave Germany certain rights and concessions in Samoa. 

Bilateral Treaties 

Germany shall renew on six months' notice at the request of any alUed or 
associated state any treaty consistent with the principles of the Peace Treaty. 
Treaties entered into by Germany since August 1, 1914 with other enemy 
powers and with Roumania, Russia or governments representing parts of 
Russia are abrogated and concessions exacted from Russia under pressure are 
annulled. The allied and associated states are to enjoy most favored nation 
treatment imder treaties entered into by Germany and other enemy states 
before August 1, 1914 and treaties between Germany and neutral states during 
the war.* 



*The effect of the main provisions of this section so far as concerns the 
United States is: (1) to restore our government to its pre-war status in its 
relations to Germany under international conventions; and (2) to rid the 
United States of a number of old treaties which were concluded with German 
states which combined to form the German Empire, and which have given rise 
to vexatious questions as to their appUcation in view of the formation of the 
German Empire subsequent to their conclusion, the United States being 
enabled, however, to revive in a satisfactory manner, if it may so desire, any 
bilateral treaty concluded with the German Empire or with any German state. 

Stipulations were framed by the Economic Commission securing national 
treatment for vessels of the allied and associated powers. These stipulations 
have been inserted in the Treaty in Part XII (Article 327). 

35 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Payment of Pre-War Debts 

A plan for the paying of pre-war debts, including those arising from 
contracts suspended by the war, for adjustment of the proceeds of the liquida- 
tion of enemy property and the settlement of other obligations is adopted 
which provides for the establishment within three months of a system of debt 
clearing houses, one to be established in Germany and one in each aUied and 
associated state assenting to the plan. Excepting in cases of pre-war insolvency 
of the debtor, each participating state assumes responsibihty for the payment 
of all debts owing by its nationals to nationals of the enemy state. Direct 
payment from debtor to creditor and correspondence relating thereto are 
prohibited during this adjustment. The proceeds of the sale of private enemy 
property in each participating state may be used to pay the debts owed to 
the nationals of that state. Controversies over these debts may be settled 
by arbitration of the courts of the debtor country or by a mixed court of 
arbitration. On six months' notice to Germany any aUied or associated state 
may decline to enter into this arrangement. Debts shall be paid in the cur- 
rency of the creditor and at pre-war exchange.* 

The stipulations indicated in the foregoing are of such a nature that they 
can take the place of commercial treaties and naturalization treaties if the 
aUied and associated coimtries are for a time left without treaties which are 
abrogated by the war but which may be renewed. The provisions of these 
articles are all unilateral in their obligations. It can probably be said that for 
the most part the requirements of these provisions are in harmony with the 
present policy and practice of the United States with regard to the matters 
embraced by them. {Memorandum of American Mission at Peace Conference). 

*A system of clearing houses is created for the settlement of debts and 
other obligations due from nationals of the allied and associated powers to 
German nationals, and vice versa. It was not deemed advisable that the 
Government of the United States should undertake to assist in the settlement 
of private affairs in accordance with this system; and therefore, largely at the 
instance of the Ainerican Delegation, a provision (sub-paragraph (e) Article 
296) was inserted in this Section so that Governments are excepted from its 
operations, unless within six months after the coming into force of the Treaty 
notice is given of a desire to participate in the clearing house scheme. The 
United States will therefore be excepted from the scheme, imless affirmative 
action is taken with a view to participation therein. 

In order to make the plan workable, it is provided that: 

(a) Each state shall guarantee the payment of all debts owing by its 
nationals to nationals of the enemy state, except in cases of the insolvency of 
the debtor before the war; 

(6) The proceeds of the sale of private enemy property in each state 
shall be used by the said state to pay the debts of its own nationals; 

(c) Debtors and creditors 'in states formerly enemy are forbidden to 
:ottle their debts with each other; or to communicate with each other regard- 
ing tJiem. 

This plan may be desirable for Great Britain, but is extremely imdesir- 
able, if not actually impossible for the United States. It is accordingly recom- 
mended that it be not accepted by the United States. 

1. Our government should not accept the burden of guaranteeing the 
private debts owed by its citizens. This would be an obligation of unknown 
and probably very great proportions. 

36 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



The provisions of the Treaty regarding payment of these debts are of such 
great importance that the full text of article is presented: 

DEBTS. 

Article 296. 
There shall be settled through the intervention of clearing 
offices to be established by each of the High Contracting Parties 
within three months of the notification referred to in paragraph 
(e) hereafter the following classes of pecuniary obhgations: 

(1) Debts payable before the war and due by a national of 
one of the Contracting Powers, residing within its territory, to 
a national of an Opposing Power, residing within its territory; 

(2) Debts which became payable during the war to nationals 
of one Contracting Power residing within its territory and arose 
out of transactions or contracts with the nationals of an Oppos- 
ing Power, resident within its territory, of which the total or 
partial execution was suspended on account of the declaration 
of war; 

(3) Interest which has accrued due before and during the 
war to a national of one of the Contracting Powers in respect 
of securities issued by an Opposing Power, provided that the 
payment of interest on such securities to the nationals of that 
Power or to neutrals has not been suspended during the war; 

2. The Treaty should not compel the United States to use the private 
property of Germans in our country for the payment of debts owed by other 
Germans to our citizens. To do so might amount to confiscation; moreover. 
Congress has expressly reserved to itself the power to decide what shall 
become of the enemy property in the United States. On the other hand, there 
seems no objection to the United States retaining the enemy property, for the 
present, as a hostage or pledge to secure American rights, and then deciding 
in its own way what is the fair and proper course. To accept the clearing 
house system would commit the United States to a course which, it is firmly 
believed, Congress will not wish to follow. 

3. To forbid our citizens from adjusting their debts and accounts with 
former enemies privately, would be a wholly unnecessary and unjustificable 
interference with private affairs. It would be a most serious obstacle in the 
resumption of business and commercial relations. Our financial houses and 
business firms had many compficated accounts, and transactions which were 
suspended by war. These houses, and especially the bankers, must speedily 
adjust their financial accounts. Otherwise commerce cannot be properly 
resumed. The Clearing House plan would compel all such adjustments and all 
payments to be made through governmental agencies. 

As regards other countries than the United States, the adoption of the 
Clearing House plan by some of them would be extremely detrimental to 
their own interests, and might be ruinous to a nation whose balance of private 
debts was largely in favor of Germany. 

The principle is already accepted. Article A, clause (e) that any Allied 
State may exclude itself from the operation of the cleeiring house plan. {Mem- 
orandum of American Mission at Peace Conference.) 

37 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



(4) Capital sums -yyhich have become payable before and 
during the war to nationals of one of the Contracting Powers in 
respect of securities issued by one of the Opposing Powers, pro- 
vided that the payment of such capital sums to nationals of 
that Power or to neutrals has not been suspended during the 
war. 

The proceeds of liquidation of enemy property, rights and 
interests mentioned in Section IV and in the Annex thereto 
•will be accounted for through the Clearing Ofiices, in the cur- 
rency and at the rate of exchange hereinafter provided in para- 
graph (d), and disposed of by them under the conditions pro- 
vided by the said Section and Axmex. 

The settlements provided for in this Article shall be effected 
according to the following principles and in accordance with the 
Annex to this Section: 

(a) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall prohibit, as 
from the coming into force of the present Treaty, both the pay- 
ment and the acceptance of payment of such debts, and also 
all communications between the interested parties with regard 
to the settlement of the said debts otherwise than through the 
Clearing Offices; 

(6) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be respec- 
tively responsible for the payment of such debts due by its na- 
tionals, except in the cases where before the war the debtor was 
in a state of bankruptcy or failure, or had given formal indica- 
tion of insolvency or where the debt was due by a company 
whose business has been liquidated under emergency legislation 
during the war. Nevertheless, debts due by the inhabitants of 
territory invaded or occupied by the enemy before the Armistice 
wiU not be guaranteed by the States of which those territories 
form part; 

(c) The sums due to the nationals of one of the High Con- 
tracting Parties by the nationals of an Opposing State will be 
debited to the Clearing Office of the country of the debtor, and 
paid to the creditor by the Clearing Office of the country of the 
creditor; , 

(rf) Debts shall be paid or credited in the currency of such 
one of the Allied and Associated Powers, their colonies or pro- 
tectorates, or the British Dominions or India, as may be con- 
concerned. If the debts are payable in some other currency they 
shall be paid or credited in the currency of the country con- 
cerned, whether an Alfied or Associated Power, Colony, Protec- 
torate, British Dominion or India, at the pre-war rate of ex- 
change. 

For the purpose of this provision the pre-war rate of ex- 

38 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



change shall be defined as the average cable transfer rate prevail- 
ing in the Allied or Associated country concerned during the 
month immediately preceding the outbreak of war between the 
said country concerned and Germany. 

If a contract provides for a fixed rate of exchange governing 
the conversion of the currency in which the debt is stated into 
the currency of the Allied or Associated country concerned, 
then the above provisions concerning the rate of exchange shall 
not apply. 

In the case of new States the currency in which and the rate 
of exchange at which debts shall be paid or credited shall be de- 
termined by the Reparation Commission provided for in Part 
VIII (Reparation); 

(e) The provisions of this Article and of the Annex hereto 
shall not apply as between Germany on the one hand and any 
one of the allied and associated powers, their colonies or pro- 
tectorates, or any one of the Rritish Dominions or India on 
the other hand, unless within a period of one month from the 
deposit of the ratification of the present Treaty by the Power in 
question, or of the ratification on behalf of such Dominion or of 
India, notice to that efi'ect is given to Germany by the Govern- 
ment of such allied or associated power or of such Dominion or 
of India as the case may be ; 

(/) The aUied and associated powers who have adopted this 
Article and the Annex hereto may agree between themselves to 
apply them to their respective nationals estabUshed in their 
territory so far as regards matters between their nationals and 
German nationals. In this case the payments made by ap- 
pUcation of this provision will be subject to arrangements be- 
tween the aUied and associated clearing offices concerned. 

Restoration by Germany of Enemy Property 

Germany agrees to restore or pay for edl enemy property seized or damaged 
by her during the war, the amount due to be fixed by a mixed arbitral tribimal, 
and any excess of damage due from Germany to nationals of an allied or 
associated state may be Uquidated by the sale of private German property 
in the respective aUied or associated states' territories. Germany agrees to 
compensate its own nationals for such losses. She agrees to deliver within six 
months documents relating to property held by Germans in allied and asso- 
ciated states. All war legislation of the allied and associated states as to 
German property is confirmed and all claims by Germany against these 
governments for acts under exceptional war measures are abandoned.* 

*Provisions in these Articles deal with the disposition of property of 
enemy nationals which the belligerents have sequestered and in some cases, 
sold during the war, that is, property of the allied and associated powers in 

39 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Cancellation of Pre-War Contracts 

Germany agrees to the cancellation of pre-war contracts between allied 
and associated nationals excepting the United States, Japan, and Brazil, 

Germany and property of German nationals in the allied and associated 
countries. 

Germany is obligated to restore the properly of nationals of the allied 
and associated powers, to pay over the proceeds of property that has been sold, 
and to make compensation for damages committed to sequestered property. 

The allied and associated governments reserve the right to retain and to 
liquidate the property of German nationals and to hold the proceeds thereof 
as a pledge for the satisfaction of claims against Germany for losses growing 
out of any action by German authorities with reference to property of nationals 
of allied and associated countries. Provisions protect even the pre-war 
claims, so to speak, of the Government of the United States (Article 298, 
Annex, part 4). Claims for property damaged or seized in Germany must be 
passed upon by a mixed arbitral tribunal. The disposition of the property 
seized or liquidated by American authorities will, so far as the United States is 
concerned, be determined in the first instance by Congress. 

The United States by special stipulations is excepted from a scheme 
relating to a "clearing house" for claims which is applicable to other contract- 
ing parties. By these stipulations it is provided that the proceeds of liquidated 
German property may be used by the United States (or any other similarly 
situated country) "in accordance with its laws and regulations" (sub-para- 
graph (2), Article 297). 

It will be observed that the American Delegation has secured to the further- 
most possible extent a method of bringing about a settlement of claims growing 
out of retention of or damage to American property in Germany, as well as the 
settlement of pre-war claims such as those growing out of the sinking of the 
"Lusitania" and certain American vessels. The responsibihty or right is left 
with Congress to determine whether German property held in the United 
States shall be applied to the settlement of these claims. 

The principles for dealing with enemy property are as follows: 

1. Germany is required to restore to the owners all private property 
seized in Germany, not already sold. As regards all such property which has 
been sold, it must either restore the property or pay the proceeds of sales 
to the government of the owner. Germany is also required to pay for any 
damages or injuries inflicted by its government upon the private property of 
the nationals of AUied citizens in Germany. The amount of said damages or 
injuries is to be determined by a mixed tribunal with a neutral president. 

The Allied countries are aUowed to hold the property of German nationals 
in their countries, and at their option to sell such property and use the pro- 
ceeds: (1) to pay for the property of their citizens not restored or paid for by 
Germany; or (2) to pay for damages to their property in Germany; or (3) to 
pay debts of their nationals owed by nationals of Germany. In case, however, 
Germany keeps its obligation to restore or pay for the Allied property in 
Germany, the Allied countries would not have to use the proceeds of German 
property for such purposes. 

2. In addition, the Allied countries are allowed, at their option, to use 
the German private property which is in their countries, to pay other claims 
against Germany, in accordance with the other terms of the Treaty. 

3. Germany agrees to compensate its own nationals for any property of 
theirs retained or sold by the Allied states. 

The adoption of the above principles will leave the United States free to deal 
with German property in the United States as Congress may decide. It may 

40 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



and German nationals and excepting for accounts already performed, agree- 
ments for property transfers where the property already has passed, leases 
of land and houses, contracts of mortgages, pledges or liens, mining conces- 
sions, contracts with governments and insurance contracts. Controversies 
over contracts shall be settled by a mixed tribunal of arbitration consisting 
of one member representing Germany, one representing the associated states 
and one named by agreement, failing which agreement the President of 
Switzerland shall nominate. The jurisdiction of this tribunal extends only to 
contracts concluded before the signing of the treaty.* 

(a) return all or any part of the property to the former 
owners; 

(fa) sell all or any part of such property and use all or any 
part of the proceeds of all sales to pay the claims of American 
citizens on account of their property and rights in Germany; 

(c) use the proceeds of such sales to pay any claims against 
Germany which may arise according to the other terms of the 
Treaty (e. g. on possible reparation or indemnity account). 
The Trading with the Enemy Act provides that the ultimate disposition 
of the enemy property taken by the AUen Property Custodian shall be decided 
by Congress, after the war. The above plan provides for Germeuiy's consent 
to this enactment. The United States agrees, however, to give due credit to 
Germany, for any property of its citizens (including the proceeds of sales) 
which the United States may apply to the purposes specified above and to give 
due credit either to Germany or to its nationals for the remainder of such 
property or proceeds, not so appUed. This stipxilation expressly excludes the 
idea that the United States will confiscate any property. 

Meanwhile all acts imder war legislation in all countries, including 
Germany, in dealing with enemy property, are confirmed, so that the titles to 
property sold by the Alien Property Custodian in the United States, as well as 
the titles to that sold by the German Government, are confirmed. This is 
intended to preclude, as far as possible, Utigation to question such titles. 
(Memoran dum of American Mission at Peace Conference.) 

*Most of the countries other than the United States have insisted upon 
a general plan by which contracts existing before the war, between their 
nationals and nationals of Germany shall be generally canceled. There are 
some exceptions like pecuniary liabUities; and some special kinds of contracts 
like insurance are otherwise treated. The United States, Brazil and Japan, 
however, have not adhered to this plan, and are expressly excepted from its 
operation. 

In the United States many contracts were dissolved, imder our laws, 
by the state of war. Examples are: partnerships; contracts requiring com- 
munication with the enemy; and, under decisions of our courts, contracts 
the performance of which was rendered unjust or inequitable on account 
of the changed conditions produced by the state of war. Other contracts were 
merely suspended. These last would be revived automatically under our 
laws, at the end of the war, and, so far as the United States is concerned, 
are treated as revived in this draft. 

The dissolution of all contracts which are now merely suspended, would 
entail great confusion and hardship upon many persons and businesses, in- 
cluding both those of the United States and of Germany; it would not seem 
just to cancel such contracts without the consent of the owners. 

The other countries represented on the Economic Commission have 
appreciated the position of the United States in this respect and have con- 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Special Insurance Clauses 

Contracts for fire insurance are not considered dissolved by the war, 
even though premiums have not been paid during the war, but such contracts 
do dissolve upon failiu-e to meet the premium payment falling due three months 
after the peace. Life insurance contracts shall be vahdated by payment of 
accumulated premiums with interest falling due on such contracts during 
the war to be recoverable with interest. Marine insurance contracts are to be 
considered dissolved by the outbreak of the war excepting where the risk 
insured against already has been incurred. Where the risk attached, premiums 
due and sums due on losses are recoverable but where risks have not attached 
premiums paid are recoverable. Reinsurance treaties are abrogated unless 
invasion has made it impossible for the reinsured to find other reinsurance. 
At its option, any allied or associated state is empowered to cancel all contracts 
between its nationals and German hfe insurance companies, Germany agreeing 
to return the portion of its assets derived from such pohcies. 

Industrial, hterary and artistic property rights are reestabhshed. The 
right is reserved to impose conditions on German patents and copyrights 
in the pubUc interest and the special war measures of the alhed and associated 
powers relating to such matters are ratified. Pre-war rights and hcenses 
protecting infringement are canceled, excepting as between the United States 
and Germany. 

Industrial Property 

The following is a synopsis of the essential points of this section affecting 
American interests. 

The system of industrial property rights as it existed before the war is, 
generally speaking, restored. The industrial property rights of aUied and asso- 

sented that this country, as well as Brazil, and Japan should leave unchanged 
the legal status of contracts to which their nationals are parties. 

Provisions is made, however, in Article I, whereby nationals of all the 
Allied and Associated Countries, the United States included, shall have access 
to a new tribunal with a neutral president, so that they need not be compelled 
to resort to German courts for the adjudication of their contractural rights 
after the war. 

Provision is made for the cancellation, with certain exceptions, of con- 
tracts concluded prior to the war by nationals of enemy countries. It was 
deemed advisable that the United States should be excepted from the greater 
portion of the provisions of this section (sub-paragraph (c) article 299). 
Controversies respecting private contractual rights must evidently therefore 
be determined by the appropriate judicial tribunals. Like nationals of other 
Allied and Associated States, American citizens will, however, have a right 
to go before a mixed arbitral tribunal in cases decided by German courts 
during the war, when such persons were not able to make their defense. 

A mixed arbitral tribunal is created which functions in connection with 
the clearing house scheme and which must pass on claims for property seized 
or damaged in Germany. The interests of the United States appear adequate- 
ly protective in the organization of this tribunal, since one of the three judges 
composing it must be a national of a neutral country, and since, if the Govern- 
ment of the United States so decides, cases may be presented to the tribunal 
in EngUsh. {Memorandum of American Mission at Peace Conference.) 

42 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



dated powers which may have become invahd by reason of the failure to pay 
amiual taxes, or to meet any formal requirements, may be revalidated. 

Failure to "work" in Germany and in the other signatory countries dur- 
ing the war is waived as a cause of forfeiture of industrial property rights. 

Americans who were prevented by the war from patenting their inven- 
tions, registering their trademarks, etc., in Germany or in other signatory 
covmtries may do so now. 

Measm-es taken during the war by the United States by way of licensing 
or Uquidating German patents are recognized as vaUd and remain effective. 

The right of the United States to impose conditions on German-owned 
Industrial Property, if in the future the national defense or pubhc interest 
should require it, is reserved by the United States and recognized by Germany. 

The UabiUty of the United States or of those acting for it for infringements 
incident to the prosecution of the war is waived by Germany for itself and for 
its nationals. 

License contract rights and rights of Americans to sue for infringements 
committed during the war by Germany or Germans are not surrendered by the 
Treaty. 

The Opium Traffic 

The contracting powers agree within twelve months, by enactment of 
requisite legislation, to bring the opium convention of January 23, 1912, into 
force, whether or not they have previously signed it or signed the protocol 
opened at The Hague in accordance with resolutions adopted by the Third 
Opium Conference in 1914. 

Integrity of Religious Missions 

The allied and associated powers agree that property of rehgious missions 
in territories belonging to or ceded to them shall continue their work under the 
control of the powers, but Germany renoimces all claims in their behalf. 



PART XI 

AERIAL NAVIGATION IN GERMANY 

Germany gives full Uberty of passage and landing of aircraft of the 
allied and associated governments over and in German territory, and equal 
treatment with German planes in the use of German airdromes and with most 
favored-nation planes in commercial traffic in Germany. Planes may cross 
Germany entirely without landing. She agrees to accept Alhed certificates 
of nationahty, worthiness of craft, competency or Kcense, and to apply the 
convention of the aUied and associated powers to her own aircraft. These rules 
will apply untO 1923 unless Germany is admitted to the League of Nations, 
or to the Air Convention before that time. 



43 



THE PEACE TREATIES 
PART XII 

PORTS, CANALS AND RAILWAYS 

Freedom of Transit 

Germany agrees to grant freedom of transit through her territories by 
rail or by water to passengers, goods, ships, carriages and mails from or to 
any of the allied or associated states, free of customs or transit duties, and 
without restrictions or discriminations based on nationality, means of transport 
or point of entry or departure. Shipments shall not be delayed, especially 
perishable goods, nor may Germany divert goods from their normal course in 
favor of her oAvn goods. Germany agrees not to levy taxes discriminating 
against any port of the alUed or associated powers but agrees to grant such 
seaports such reductions in tariffs as enjoyed by her own nationals and afford 
the nationals of the alUed and associated powers equed rights with those of 
Germans in her ports and waterways. 

Free Zones in Ports 

Germany agrees to maintain free zones in German ports existing on 
August 1, 1914, with due facihties as to warehousing, packing, etc., without 
discrimination or charges except for expenses of administration and use. 
Goods leaving these free zones to enter Germany or entering the free zones 
from Germany shall be subject to the ordineu-y import and export taxes. 

International Rivers 

The following rivers are declared international with equEd rights for all 
flags: The Elbe from the junction of the Vltava, the Vltava from Prague, the 
Oder from Oppa, the Niemen from Grodno, and the Dantd)e from Ulm. Their 
connections are included and the riparian states are required to assure good 
conditions of navigation within their territories where no special organization 
exists for such work. Appeal as to the upkeep of these international rivers 
may be had to the League of Nations which may arrange an international 
waterways convention. Special international commissions are provided for 
working out these plans. 

The Danube 

Limited to representatives of Great Britain, France, Italy and Roumania, 
the European Danube Commission resumes its pre-war powers and the Upper 
Danube is to be administered by a new international commission, pending a 
more permanent international arrangement to be reached within a year after 
the peace. The enemy governments agree to cede their interests and river 
facihties in territory they have ceded to new states and shall make reparation 
to the Europeem Danube Commission for damages sustained during the war. 
Czechoslovakia, Serbia and Roumania shall be given any rights necessary to 
enable them to carry out navigation improvements along their shores. 
The Rhine and Moselle 

For the purpose of administration of the Rhine a central commission shall 
meet at Strasburg within six months after the peace, being composed as 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



follows: four representatives of Freince, which shall select the President of the 
commission ; four of Germany, and two each of Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, 
Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Germany agrees in advance to permit 
France to divert water from the Rhine to feed canals on the French side of the 
river while refraining from making such diversions on the left bank. Germany 
must surrender to France all her drafts and designs for this part of the river, 
that is the portion between the French frontiers. 

A deep-draft Rhine-Meuse canal may be constructed by Belgium, if 
she desires, within 25 years in which case Germany agrees to construct the part 
within her territory in accordance with the Belgian plans, and similar provision 
is made for other Riiine-Meuse canal enterprises. Germany agrees not to 
object if the General Rhine Commission extends its jurisdiction over the upper 
Rhine, lower Moselle and lateral canals. 

River Craft Ceded 

Germany agrees to cede to the allied and associated powers certain tugs, 
vessels and facilities for navigation on these streams, the United States 
naming an arbiter to work out specific details. Decisions shall be governed 
by precedents drawn from a pre-war period of five years, next preceding the 
war. Adjustments will be made against the reparation account for seizures. 
Shares in German navigation companies operating on the Rhine and such pro- 
perty as wharves and warehouses including those at Rotterdam at the outbreak 
of the war, must be handed over. 

Railway Facilities 

Germany agrees to co-operate in establishment of through ticket services 
for passengers and baggage; to insure rail communication between allied, 
associated and other states; to allow construction or improvement within 25 
years of such new lines as necessary and to standardize her rolling stock in 
accordance with the standards of the other countries and generally to give 
most favored nation treatment on her railways. She agrees (should Italy and 
Switzerland so request) to the denunciation of the St. Gothard Convention 
and temporarily to execute instructions to the transport of troops and suppUes 
and the establishment of postal and telegraphic facilities. 

Exits for Czechoslovakia 

A commission of three representing Czechoslovakia, Germany and Great 
Britain shall work out details of a plan whereby the former may run trains to 
Fiume and Trieste on the Adriatic and secure a 99-year lease from Germany 
of terminal facilities in Hamburg eind Stettin. 

Opening of the Kiel Canal 

Germany opens the Kiel Canal to free passage of war and merchant 
ships of nations with which she is at peace, with absolute equality and no extra- 
ordinary charges, Germany being responsible for upkeep of the canal. Ger- 
many shall establish at Kiel a local authority to hear prehminary complaints 
but major controversies may be appealed to the League of Nations which may 
appoint an international commission to adjust such matters. 

45 



THE PEACE TREATIES 
PART XIII 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION 

Permanent Offices and Conference 

i Members of the League of Nations agree to the permanent establishment 
of an international labor conference with a permanent international labor office. 
The Conference shall be composed of four representatives of each state, 
two from the govermnent and one each from the employers and the employed 
and each may have an individual vote. Drafts of conventions or recommenda- 
tions of this Conference may form the basis of legislation and if such recom- 
mendations come up on a two-thirds vote of the Conference they must be sub- 
mitted to the state legislative bodies. Each state legislative body may reject 
the proposals without further obUgation or may enact the terms into law with 
such local modifications as appear requisite or may approve the principles 
involved, leaving the actual legislation to local subdivisions. 

The international labor office is to be established at the seat of the League 
of Nations, as a part of the League's organization. This office shall make inves- 
tigations and collect labor data and prepare matter for the Conference. It 
will publish a periodical in French, English and, permissively, in other lan- 
guages. Annual reports shall be made to the Conference by the member states 
covering labor legislation, etc. 

Governing Body 

The governing body of the Conference shall consist of an executive 
composed as follows: Twelve members representing governments, six em- 
ployers and six employes, terms to run for three years. 

Complaints of Lack of Co-operation 

The governing body may question any state as to the facts when complaint 
is made that the state has failed to carry out the terms of a convention relating 
to labor to which it is a party. If the government's reply is unsatisfactory, 
the governing body may publish it with comment. Should one state complain 
against another, the governing body may refer the matter to a commission 
nominated by the Secretary General of the League of Nations. Failure of such 
a commission to obtain a satisfactory Issue may be followed by reference of the 
whole matter to a permanent court of internation al justice for final decision. 

Enforcement of Decisions 

While publicity will be held the chief weapon in enforcing decisions 
relating to labor controversies, economic action against a nation may be taken. 

First Conference at Washington 

The first meeting of the conference will be held at Washington in October, 
1919, and the program shall include discussion of the eight-hour day, 
forty-eight hour week; prevention of unemployment; extension and applica- 
tion of Berne conventions of 1909 prohibiting night work of women and 

46 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY 



unhealthy work; employment of women before and after childbirth; maternity 
benefits and minimum wages for clj^^en. 
Nine Labor Clauses 

The nine clauses which constitute the general labor platform of the 
League of Nations are: 

Labor must not be regarded as a commodity; 

Right of association of employers and employes; 

Adequate wage to maintain a reasonable standard of living; 

The eight-hour day or forty-eight hour week; 

Abolition of child labor and promotion of education and welfare; 

Equal pay for equal work of men and women; 

Equitable treatment of all workers including foreigners; 

A system of inspection with representation for women. 



PART XIV 

TREATY GUARANTIES BY GERMANY/— REOCCUPA- 
TION OF HER TERRITORY 

German territory west of the Rhine, with the bridgeheads, will be occupied 
by the Allied and Associated troops for 15 years as a guarantee of the execu- 
tion of the treaty. If the provisions are carried out faithfully by Germany, 
certain occupied sections, including the bridgehead at Cologne, wiU be eva- 
cuated at the end of 5 years; other districts, including the Coblenz bridge- 
head and territories nearest the Belgian frontier, at the end of 10 years, and 
the remainder, including the Mainz and Kehl bridgeheads, at the end of 
15 years. If before the expiration of the 15 years Germany faithfully com- 
plies with all of the treaty provisions, the occupied forces will be withdrawn 
immediately. If Germany fails to execute the whole or part of her obliga- 
tions, either during the occupation or after the 15 years, the whole or part of 
the areas will be reoccupied immediately. All German troops who are now 
east of the new frontier shall return as soon as the Allied and Associated govern- 
ments deem wise. They will refrain from all requisitions and not interfere 
with measures for national defense by the government concerned. All 
questions regarding occupation not provided for in the treaty will be regulated 
by subsequent convention and with equal force and effect. - '"^ 



PART XV 

MISCELLANEOUS FEATURES OF TREATY. — EFFEC- 
TIVE DATES OF TREATY 

Germany binds herself to recognize the full vahdity of the treaties of 
peace and subsequent conventions concluded by the Allied and Associated 

47 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



governments with the powers allied with Germany, and the decisions to be 
taken as to the territories of Austria-Hmigary, Bulgaria and Turkey. She 
agrees further to recognize the new states in the frontiers to be fixed for them. 
She agrees not to advance any pecuniary claims against an Allied or Asso- 
ciated power signing the present treaty that are based on events previous 
to the coming into force of the treaty. She accepts all decrees of Allied and 
Associated prize courts relative to German ships and goods. The AlUes 
reserve the rights to examine all decisions of German prize courts. The 
treaty, of which the English and French texts are both authentic, shall be 
ratified and depositions of ratifications made in Paris as soon as possible. 
The treaty will become eflective in respect to all of its provisions for each 
power on the date of deposition of its ratification. 

This part further abrogates the Franco-Swiss treaties respecting Savoy 
and Gex as neutralized zones and provides for revision of this arrangement. 

It is provided that the chairmem of any commission established by the 
treaty may vote to decide ties. 

Ratification is dictated as follows: 

The deposit of ratifications shall be made at Paris as soon as possible. 

Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe will be 
entitled merely to inform the Government of the French Repubhc through 
their diplomatic representatives at Paris that their ratification has been given; 
in that case they must transmit the instrument of ratification as soon as 
possible. 

A first proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn up as 
soon as the Treaty has been ratified by Germany on the one hand, and by 
three of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers on the other hand. 

From the date of this first proces-verbal the Treaty will come into force 
between the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it. For the determi- 
nation of all periods of time provided for in the present Treaty this date will 
be the date of the coming into force of the Treaty. 

In all other respects the Treaty will enter into force for such Power at 
the date of the deposit of its ratification. 

The French Government will transmit to each of the signatory Powers 
a certified copy of the proces-verbaux of the deposit of ratifications. 



48 



SEPARATE TREATY WITH FRANCE 



SEPARATE TREATY WITH FRANCE 

ASSISTANCE TO FRANCE IN THE EVENT OF UNPROVOKED 
AGGRESSION BY GERMANY 



Agreement Between the United States and France, SiorfEo at 
Versailles June 28, 1919. 

Whereas the United States of America and the French Repubhc arc 
equally animated by the desire to maintain the Peace of the World so happily 
restored by the Treaty of Peace signed at Versailles the 28th day of June, 
1919, putting an end to the war begun by the aggression of the German 
Empire and ended by the defeat of that Power; and. 

Whereas the United States of America and the French Republic are fully 
persuaded that an unprovoked movement of aggression by Germany against 
France would not only violate both the letter and the spirit of the Treaty of 
Versadlles to which the United States of America and the French Republic 
are parties, thus exposing France anew to the intolerable burdens of an unpro- 
voked war, but that such aggression on the part of Germany would be and is 
so regarded by the Treaty of Versailles as a hostile act against all the Powers 
signatory to the Treaty and as calculated to disturb the Peace of the world 
by involving inevitably and directly the States of Europe and indirectly, as 
experience has amply and unfortunately demonstrated, the world at large; and, 

\Miereas the United States of America and the French Republic fear that 
the stipulations relating to the left betnk of the Rhine contained in said Treaty 
of Versailles may not at first provide adequate security and protection to 
France on the one hand and the United States of America as one of the signa- 
tories of the Treaty of Versailles on the other; 

Therefore, the United States of America and the French Republic having 
decided to conclude a treaty to effect these necessary purposes, Woodrow 
Wilson, President of the United States of America, and Robert Lansing, 
Secretary of State of the United States, specially authorized thereto by the 
President of the United States, and Georges Clemenceau, President of the 
Council, Minister of War, and Stephen Pichon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
specially authorized thereto by Raymond Poincare, President of the French 
Republic, have agreed upon the following articles: 

Article I. 
In case the following stipulations relating to the Left Bank of the Rhine 
contained in the Treaty of Peace with Germany signed at Versailles the 28th 
day of June, 1919, by the United States of America, the French Republic and 
the British Empire among other Powers: 

"Article 42. Germany is forbidden to maintain or con- 
struct any fortifications either on the left bank of the Rhine or on 
the right bank to the west of a line drawn 50 kilometres to the 
East of the Rhine. 

"Article 43. In the area defined above the maintenance 

49 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



and assembly of eirmed forces, either permanently or temporarily, 
and military mancEuvres of any kind, as weU as the upkeep of 
all permanent works for mobilization are in the same way for- 
bidden. 

"Article 44. In case Germany violates in any manner 
whatever the provisions of Articles 42 and 43, she shall be re- 
garded as comjnitting a hostile act against the Powers signatory 
of the present Treaty and as calculated to disturb the peace of 
the world." 

may not at first provide adequate security and protection to France, the 
United States of America shall be bound to come immediately to her assistance 
in the event of any unprovoked movement of aggression against her being 
made by Germany. 

Article II. 

The present Treaty, in similar terms with the Treaty of even date for the 
same purpose concluded between Great Britain and the French Republic, a 
copy of which Treaty is annexed hereto, will only come into force when the 
latter is ratified. 

Article III. 

The present Treaty must be submitted to the Council of the League of 
Nations, and must be recognized by the CouncU, actiug if need be by a major- 
ity, as an engagement which is consistent with the Covenant of the League. 
It will continue in force until on the apphcation of one of the Parties to it the 
Council, acting if need be by a majority, agrees that the League itself affords 
sufficient protection. 

Article IV. 

The present Treaty will be submitted to the Senate of the United States 
at the same time as the Treaty of Versailles is submitted to the Senate for its 
advice and consent to ratification. It will be submitted before ratification to 
the French Chamber of Deputies for approval. The ratifications thereof will 
be exchanged on the deposit of ratifications of the Treaty of Versailles at 
Paris or as soon thereafter as shall be possible. 

In faith Whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries, to wit: On the part of 
the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson, President, and Robert 
Lansing, Secretary of State, of the United States; and on the part of the 
French Repubhc, Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council of Ministers, 
Minister of War, and Stephen Pichon, Muiister of Foreign Affairs, have signed 
the above articles both in the Enghsh and French languages, and they have 
hereunto affixed their seals. . 

Done in duplicate at the City of Versailles, on the twenty-eighth day of 
June, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, and 
the one hundred and forty-third of the Independence of the United States of 
America. 

[seal.] Woodrow Wilson. 

[seal.] Robert Lansing, 

[seal.] G. Clemenceau. 

[seal.] S. Pichon. 

50 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, 
FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, 

These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers; 

BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, CHINA, CUBA, ECUADOR, 
GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, THE HEDJAZ, HONDURAS, 
LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL, 
ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHO- 
SLOVAKIA and URUGUAY. 

These Powers constituting, with the Principal Powers mentioned above, 
the Allied and Associated Powers, 

of the one part; 
And AUSTRIA, 

of the other part; 
Whereas on the request of the former Imperial and Royal Austro- 
Hungarian Government an Armistice was granted to Austria-Hungary on 
November 3, 1918, by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in order 
that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded, and 

Whereas the Allied and Associated Powers are equally desirous that the 
war in which certain among them were successively involved, directly or 
indirectly, against Austria-Hungary, and which originated in the declaration 
of war against Serbia on July 28, 1914, by the former Imperial and Royal 
Austro-Hungarian Government, and in the hostilities conducted by Germany 
in alliance with Austria-Hungary, should be replaced by a firm, just euid 
durable Peace, and 

Whereas the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has now ceased to 
exist, and has been replaced in Austria by a republican government, and 

Whereas the Principal AUied and Associated Powers have already recog- 
nized that the Czecho-Slovali State, in which are incorporated certain portions 
of the said Monarchy, is a free, independent and allied State, and 

Whereas the said Powers have also recognized the union of certain por- 
tions of the said Monarchy with the territory of the Kingdom of Serbia as 
a free, independent and allied State, under the name of the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
State, and 

Whereas it is necessary, while restoring peace, to regulate the situation 
which has arisen from the dissolution of the said Monarchy and the formation 
of the said States, and to establish the government of these countries on a 
firm foundation of justice and equity; 

For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have 
agreed as follows: 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war will 
terminate. 

Austria is recognized under the name of the "Republic of Austria." 

From that moment, and subject to the provisions of this Treaty, oflBcial 
relations will exist between the AlHed and Associated Powers and the Republic 
of Austria. 

51 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



PART I 

Part I of the Austrian Treaty comprises the Covenant of the League of 
Nations, as presented in Part I of the Treaty with Germany. (See page 6.) 



PART II 

FRONTIERS OF AUSTRIA 

Article 27 

The frontiers of Austria shall be fixed as follows: 

1. With Switzerland and Lichtenstein: 
the present frontier. 

2. With Italy: 

From the point 2645 (Gruben J.) eastwards to Klopaier Spitz, 

thence eastwards to the summit of Dreiherm Spitz, 

the watershed between the basins of the Inn to the north and the Adige to 
the south; 

thence south-south-eastwards to Marchkinkele, 

the watershed between the basins of the Drave to the east and the Adige 
to the west; 

thence south-eastwards to Hehn Spitz, 

a line to be fixed on the ground crossing the Drave between Winnbach 
tmd Arnbach; 

thence east-soutb-eastwards to Osternig, about 9 kilometres northwest 
of Tarvis, 

the watershed between the basins of the Drave on the north and succes- 
sively the basins of the Sextenbach, the Piave and the Tagliamento on the 
south; 

thence east-south-eastwards to about 2 kilometres west of Thorl, 

the watershed between the Gail and the Gailitz; 

thence eastwards to Pec, 

a line to be fixed on the ground cutting the Gailitz south of the town and 
station of Thorl and passing by Cabin Berg. 

3. On the South, and then with the Klagenfurt area, subject to the Political 
Clauses: 

from Pec eastwards to Malestiger, 

the crest of the Karavanken; 

from Malestiger and in a north-easterly direction as far as the Drave at a 
point situated about 1 kilometre south-east of the railway bridge on the eastern 
branch of the bend made by that river about 6 kilometres east of Villach, 

a line to be fixed on the ground cutting the railway between Mallestig and 
Faak passing through Polana; 

thence in a south-easterly direction to a point about 2 kilometres above 
St. Martin, 

the course of the Drave; 

thence in a northerly direction about 10 kilometres to the east-north-east 
of Villach, 

a fine running approximately from south to north to be fixed on the 
ground; 

thence east-north-eastwards to a point to be chosen near a point about 
10 kilometres north-west of Klangenfurt on the administrative boundary 
between the districts of St. Veit and Klagenfurt, 

52 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



a line to be fixed on the ground passing through Taubenbiihel, Gallinberg 
and Freud enberg; 

thence eastwards to a point to be chosen on the ground west of Steinbruch 
Kogel, 

the administrative boundary between the districts of St. Veit and Klagen- 
furt; 

thence north-eastwards to the point on the Gurk where the adminis- 
trative boundary of the district of Volkermarkt leaves this river, 

a line to be fixed on the ground; 

thence north-eastwards to Speikkogl, 

the administrative boundary between the districts of St. Veit and Volker- 
markt; 

thence south-eastwards 1 kilometre west of Kasparstein, 

the north-eastern boundary of the district of Volkermarkt; 

thence eastwards to Hiihner Kogel, 

a fine to be fixed on the ground passing north of Lavamiind. 

4. With the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, subject to the Political Clauses: 
From Hiihner Kogel eastwards to Lorenzen, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing; 

thence eastwards to the point where it meets the administrative boundary 
between the districts of Marbtug and Leibnitz, 

the watershed between the basins of the Drave to the south and the 
Saggau to the north; 

thence north-eastwards to the point where this administrative boundary 
meets the Mur, 

the above-mentioned administrative boundary; 

thence to the point where it meets the old frontiers of 1867 between Austria 
and Hungary 5 kilometres south-east of Radkersburg, 

the principal course of the Mur downstream; 

thence northwards to a point to be fixed east of a point about 16 kilo- 
metres north of Radkersburg, 

the old frontier of 1867 between Austria and Hungary; 

thence north-eastwEirds to a point to be fixed on the watershed between 
the basins of the Raab and the Mur about 2 kilometres east of Toka, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, passing between the villages of Ronis- 
falva and Gedoudvar. 

This point is the point common to the three frontiers of Austria, Hungary 
and the Serb- Croat-Slovene State. 

5. With Hungary: 

From the point above defimed north-eastwards to a point about 6 kilo- 
metres north-north-east of Szentgotthard, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through point 353 (Janke B.), 
then west of the Radkersburg-Szentgotthard road and east of the villages of 
Nagyfalva, Nemetlak and Rabakeresztur; 

thence in a general north-easterly direction to a point about 7 kilometres 
north-north-east of Pinka-Mindszent, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through Hochkogel, then south of 
the villages of Zsamand, Nemetbiikkos and Karacsfa, and between Nagy- 
saroslak and Pinka-Mindszent; 

thence northwards to Trott Ko, about 9 kilometres south-west of Koszeg, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, then east of Nagynarda and Rohoncz 
and west of Dozmat and Butsching; 

thence north-eastwards to Kamenje about 2 kilometres south-east of 
Nikitsch, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, passing south-east of Leibing, Olmod and 
Locsmand, and north-west of Koszeg and the road from Koszeg to Saleunonfa; 

53 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



thence northwards to a point to be selected on the southern shore of 
Neusiedler See between Holling and Hidegseg, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, passing east of Nikitsch and Zinkendorf 
and west of Kovesd and Nemet-Pereszteg; 

thence eastwards to a point situated about 8 kilometres south-west of 
St. Johann, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, crossing the Neusiedler See, passing 
south of an island, leaving in Hungary the brginch railway running north- 
westwards from the station of Mexiko as weU as the entire Einser canal, and 
passing south of Pamhagen; 

thence northwards to a point to be selected about 1 kilometre west of 
Antonienhof (east of Kittsee) , this point being the point common to the three 
frontiers of Austria, Hungary, and the Czecho-Slovak State; 

a line to be fixed on the ground, leaving entirely in Hungarian territory 
the Csorna-Karlburg railway and passing west of Wiist-Sommerein and Kr. 
Jahrndorf, and east of Andau, Nikelsdorf, D. Jahrndorf and Kittsee. 

6. Wilh the Czecho-Slovak State: 

From the point above defined north-westwards to the bend of the old 
frontier of 1867 between Austria and Hungary about 2H kilometres north-east 
of Berg, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, cutting the Kittsee-Pressburg road about 
2 kilometres north of Kittsee; 

thence northwards to a point to be selected on the principal channel of 
navigation of the Danube about 4J^ kilometres upstream from the Pressburg 
bridge, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following as much as possible the old 
frontier of 1867 between Austria and Hungary; 

thence westwards to the confluence of the Morava (March) with the 
Danube, 

the principal channel of navigation of the Danube; 

thence the course of the Morava upstream, then the course of the Thaya 
upstream to a point to be selected about 2 kilometres south-east of the inter- 
section of the Rabensburg-Themenau road with the Radensburg-Lundenburg 
railway; 

thence west - north - westwards the above-mentioned administrative 
boundary between Lower Austria and Moravia situated about 400 metres 
south of the point where this boundary cuts the Nikolsburg-Feldsberg railway, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through Dlouhyvrch, Rosenbergen, 
Wolfsberg, Raistenberg, and Kallerhaide; 

thence west-north-westwards the above-mentioned administrative bound- 
ary; 

thence westwards to a point to be selected about 3 kilometres east of the 
village of Franzensthal, 

the old administrative boundary between Lower Austria and Bohemia; 

thence southwards to Gelsenberg, about 5 kilometres north-northwest 
of Gmund, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of the Rottenschachen- 
Zuggers road; 

thence southwards and then west-north-westwards to a point on the old 
administrative boundary between Lower Austria and Bohemia situated about 
200 metres north of the point where it cuts the Gratzen-Weitra road, 

a Une to be fixed on the ground passing between Zuggers and Breitensee, 
then through the most south-easterly point of the railway bridge over the 
Lainsitz while leaving to Austria the town of Gmiind and to the Czecho- 
slovak State the station and railway works of Gmiind (Wolfshof) and the 
junction of the Gmiind-Budweis and Gmiind-Wittingau railways, then 
passing through Grundbiihel, north of Hohenberg and Lagerberg; 

54 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



thence south-westwards the above-mentioned administrative boundeiry, 
then north-westwards the old administrative boundary between Upper Austria 
and Bohemia to its point of junction with the frontier of Germany. 

7. With Germany: 

The frontier of August 3, 1914. 

Frontiers described by this treaty are traced on the map attached to the 
treaty, except as for such parts as are not yet defined. In the event of differ- 
ences between the text and the maps, the text will prevail. 

Boundary commissions will have to trace these frontiers on the ground. 
They shall have the power of fixing those portions described as "a line to be 
fixed on the groimd,' and where a request is made by one of the states con- 
cerned, and it is deemed desirable by the commission, they may revise portions 
defined by administrative boundaries. This shall not apply, however, in the 
case of international boundaries existing in August, 1914, where the commis- 
sion will confine itself to the re-establishment of sign posts and boundary marks. 
The commissions shall endeavor in both cases to follow as near as possible the 
description given in the treaties, taking into account as far as possible admin- 
istrative boundaries and local economic interests. 

The decisions of the commissions will be taken by a majority, and will be 
binding on the parties concerned. 

Where a frontier is defined by a waterway, the phrases " course," or 
"channel" used in the descriptions of the treaty signify, as regards non-navi- 
gable rivers, the median line of the waterway or its principal branch, and as 
regards navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation. 
It win rest with the Boundary commission to specify whether the frontier line 
shall follow any changes of the course or channel which may take place, or 
whether it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at 
the time when the treaty goes into force. 

The various interested states xmdertake to furnish to the Boimdary com- 
missions all documents necessary to the tasks of the commissions, and espe- 
cially authentic copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large 
scale maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpubfished, 
and information concerning the changes of frontier water courses. They under- 
take to instruct local authorities to commimicate to the commissions all docu- 
ments, especially plans, cadastral and land books, and to furnish on demand 
all land books, details regarding property, existing economic conditions and 
necessary information. 

The various interested states will give every assistance to the commissions, 
whether direct or through local authorities, in everything that concerns local 
transport, accommodation, labor, and material necessary to the accompUsh- 
ment of their tasks. 

The various states undertake to safeguard the trigonometrical points, 
signals, posts and frontier marks erected by.the commissions. The protocols 
defining the boundaries, with maps and documents, will be made out in trip- 
licate, with two copies forwarded to the governments of the limitrophe states, 
and a third to the government of France. Authentic copies will be delivered 
by France to the powers signing the treaty. 



PART III 

POLITICAL CLAUSES FOR EUROPE 

Austria, as far as she is concerned, renoimces in favor of Italy all rights 
and titles to the territory of the former Austro-Himgarian monarchy situated 
beyond the frontier laid down in Article 27, and lying between that frontier, 

53 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



the former AustroHungarian frontier, the Adriatic Sea, and the eastern fron- 
tier of Italy. Austria also renounces in favor of Italy in the same way all 
rights and title over the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy 
which may be recognized as forming a part of Italy by any treaties which may 
be concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement. A commis- 
sion, composed of five members, one nominated by Italy, three by the other 
Principal AUied and Associated Powers, and one by Austria, shall be con- 
stituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present treaty to 
trace on the spot the frontier line between Italy and Austria. The decisions 
of the commission will be taken by a majority and shaU be binding on the 
parties concerned. 

Persons having their residence in the territories of the former Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy, or who have been imprisoned, interned or evacuated, 
shall enjoy the full benefit of the provisions of Articles of the Economic 
Clauses relating to contracts. 

A special convention will determine the terms of repayment in Austrian 
currency of the special war expenditure advanced during the war by the 
territory of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy that is transferred to 
Italy, or by public associations in that territory on account of legislation of 
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. In fixing the amount of these sums Austria 
shall be credited with the amount which the territory would have contributed 
to Austria-Hungary to meet the expenses resulting from these payments, this 
contribution to be based and calculated according to the proportion of the 
revenues of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy derived from the terri- 
tory in 1913. 

The Italian government wiU collect for its own account the taxes, dues 
and charges of every kind leviable in the territories transferred to Ital^, and 
not collected on November 3, 1918. 

No sum shall be due to Italy because of possession of the Palazzo Venezia 
at Rome. 

Stale Property and Railroads in Italy. 

Subject to the provisions of the Financial Clauses relative to the acqui- 
sition of and payment for state property and possessions, the Italian govern- 
ment is substituted in all the rights possessed by the Austrian state over all 
railways in the territories transferred to Italy which were administered by the 
Railway Administration of said state, and which are actually working or under 
construction. The same wiU apply to the rights of the former Austro-Hunga- 
rian monarchy with regard to railways and tramway concessions within the 
above-mentioned territories. The frontier railway stations will be determined 
by a subsequent agreement. 

Austria will restore to the Italian government within three months all the 
wagons belonging to the Itahan railways which before the war had passed into 
Austria and have not been returned to Italy. 

As of November 3, 1918, Austria renoimces on behalf of herself and her 
nationals with regard to territories transferred to Italy all rights which she may 
be entitled to with regard to the products of the aforesaid territories under any 
agreements, stipulations or laws establishing trusts, cartels or other similar 
organizations. 

Central Power Stations. 

For a period of ten years after the present treaty comes into effect, 
central electric power stations situated in Austrian territory, and formerly 
furnishing electric power to the territories transferred to Italy, or to any other 
estabhshment the exploitation of which passes to Italy, shall be required to 
continue furnishing this supply up to an amount corresponding to the imder- 
takings and contracts in force on November 3, 1918. Austria admits the right 

56 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



of Italy to the free use of the waters of Lake Raibl, and its derivative water 
course, and to divert the said waters to the basin of the Korinitza. 

Civil Judgments Reviewed. 

Judgments rendered since August 4, 1914, by the courts in the territory 
transferred to Italy in civil and commercial cases between the inhabitants 
of such territories, and other nationals of the former Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy shall not be carried into effect until after the endorsement by the 
corresponding new court of such territory. All decisions rendered for political 
crimes or offences since August 4, 1914, by the judicial authorities of the former 
Austro-Hungarian monarchy against Itahan nationals, including persons 
who may obtain Italian nationahty under the present treaty, shall be aimuUed. 
In a]l matters relating to proceedings instituted before the present treaty 
coming into effect before competent authorities in the territory transformed 
to the Italian government, the Italian and Austrian judicial authorities re- 
respectively shall until the coming into force of a special convention on this 
subject be authorized to correspond with each other direct. Requests thus 
presented shall be given effect to so far as the laws of a pubUc character allow 
in the country to the authorities of which the request is addressed. 

Appeals to the higher Austrian authorities, judicial and administrative, 
who are beyond the limits of the territory transferred to Italy concerning 
decisions of administrative or judicial authorities of this territory shall be 
suspended. The records shall be submitted to the authorities against whose 
decision the appeal was talten. They must be transmitted to the competent 
Italian authorities without delay. All other questions as to jurisdiction, 
procedure or the administration of justice will be determined by a special 
convention between Italy and Austria. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Austria recognizes the complete independence of this state. Austria 
renounces so far as this state is concerned all rights and title over territories 
of the former Austro-Hungsuian monarchy situated outside of the frontiers 
of Austria as laid down in the provision governing the frontiers of Austria, 
or by any treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settle- 
ment. A commission of seven members, five nominated by the principal 
Allied and Associated powers, one by the Serb-Croat-Slovene state, and one 
by Austria, shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into 
force of the present treaty to trace on the spot the frontier hne between 
Austria and the Serb-Croat-Slovene state. The decisions of the commission 
will be taken by the majority and shall be binding on both parties. 

The inhabitants of the Klagenfurt area will be called upon to the extent 
stated below to indicate by a vote the state to which they wish the territory 
to belong. 

THE KLAGENFURT PLEBISCITE 

The Klagenfurt area is divided into two zones for the purposes of a 
plebiscite, these zones being ships extending east and west across the area. 
A commission will prepare the plebiscite, being composed of four members 
nominated respectively by the United States, Great Britain, France and Italy, 
one by Austria, one by Serb-Croat-Slovene State. The Austrian member par- 
ticipating only in respect of the second zone and the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
member only in respect of the first. A majority shall rule. 

Austrian troops shall occupy the second zone and Serb-Croat-Slovene 
troops the first. The troops shall be limited in number and speedily re- 
placed by locally recruited police. 

The first zone plebiscite shall be within three months of signature and 
if the vote is in favor of annexation to the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, a proc- 

57 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



lamation shall call for a vote in the Second zone three weeks later. If the 
vote in the first zone is for Austria, no further plebiscite shall be taken, the 
whole area remaining under Austrian sovereignty. 

Eight of Suffrage. 

Equal suffrage for aU who on January 1, 1919, had attained the age of 
20 years and who had been residents of the zones since January 1, 1912, shall 
prevail, regardless of sex. A majority vote shall rule. The general super- 
vision of the Commission shall endure until the issue is finally determined 
and Austria and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State^hall share expenses. 

Obligations of Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State agrees to make treaties with the Powfijrs 
to protect the interests of the various races within her borders, and grants 
freedom of transit and equitable commercial treatment. 

Czechoslovak State. 

Austria recognizes the new Czecho-Slovak State, including autonomous 
territory of the Ruthenians south of the Carpathians. Sovereignty of the 
portions of the old Empire given to Czechoslovakia is renounced. 

Fifteen days after effectiveness of this treaty a Cormnission, composed 
of seven members, five representing the Powers, one the Czecho-Slovak State, 
and one Austria, shall mark the bouLudaries prescribed ia the preceding sec- 
tions on the ground, a majority ruhng. 

The Czecho-Slovak State agrees not to erect fortifications on its territory 
on the right bank of the Danube south of Pressburg. 

This State further agrees to give protection to the races within its terri- 
tory and to accord freedom of transit and equitable commercial treatment 
and to make treaties to this effect. 

Roumanian Clauses. 

Austria renounces in favor of Roimiania her title over said portion of 
the old Duchy of Bukovina lying within the new Roumania. 

Roumania agrees to accord protection to the races within her borders 
and to accord freedom of transit and commercial equity. She will make 
treaties accordingly with the Powers. 

The new States all agree to abide by the obligations to accept parts of 
the Austrian Debt as provided in the j^ancial Clauses. 

Protection of Minorities. 

In agreeing to grant full liberties to all her inhabitants, Austria contracts 
to regard treaty provisions eliminating discrimination as to nationahty, 
language, race or reUgion as fundamental law. Austria agrees to accord 
citizenship to all nationals without further formaUty who are nationals on 
the effective date of the treaty. The right of the people to use their own 
languages before the Courts shall not be abridged. People of linguistic 
minorities may establish their own schools and other institutions. The 
teaching of the German language may be made obhgatory but in addition 

K revision must be made for instruction in the various native languages, 
linorities shaU receive fair shares of pubhc expenditures. 

Austria consents to the guarantee of these protections by the League of 
Nations. They may be modified by a majority of the CouncU of the League. 
Provision is made for referring disputes under these sections to the League 
or the Permanent Court of International Justice, the decision of which shall 
be final. 

Transfers of Nationality. 

Persons possessing right of citizenship in dismembered States throw off 
the old Austrian nationality, and take on that of the new State exclusively. 

In the case of territory ceded to Italy, nativity in the territory is the basic 
rule of transfer, an optional system being provided for others. 

58 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



As to the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, citizenship may be obtained by 
those in newly ceded territory only by permit. 

The High Contracting Parties agree not to hinder these options. A wife 
and minors under 18 years shall be governed by the option of husband and 
father. 

Belgian Political Clauses. 

Austria undertakes to agree to revision of the treaty of April 19, 1839, 
relating to Belgian neutrality and to assent to treaties which may be made 
between the Powers and Belgium and the Netherlands. 

Luxemburg. 

Austria agrees to the termination of the regime of neutrahty in Luxem- 
burg and assents to any arrangements which may be made between that 
Grand Duchy and the Powers. 

Schleswig. 

Austria recognizes the terms made with Germany regarding restoration 
of Schleswig to Denmark. 

Turkey and Bulgaria. 

Austria undertakes to recognize arrangements between the Powers and 
Turkey and Bulgaria with reference to rights, privileges and interests which 
may be claimed by Austria or her nationals in those countries. 

Russia and Russian States. 

Austria acknowledges the independence of aU States which were part of 
the old Russian Empire on August 1, 1914. The cancellation of the Brest- 
Litovsk treaty and agreements with any Russian factions is affirmed. Russian 
claims for restitution from Austria are reserved. Austria further agrees to 
recognize any treaties which the AUies may make with Russia or Russian 
States. 

General Provisions. 

The independence of Austria is declared inalienable except by consent of 
the League of Nations. Austria agrees to guard against compromising this 
independence pending her admission to the League. 

Austria recognizes and accepts the frontiers of Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary 
Poland, Roumiania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czecho-Slovak 
State, as may be determined by the Allied and Associated Powers. Austria 
recognizes the treaties made or to be made with her former AlUes. She con, 
firms recognition of all new States erected. She will not molest inhabitants 
of states which were parts of the old Empire. 

Surrender of Archives. 

Austria shall hand over to the Powers all archives, plans, deeds, etc., 

Eertaining to dismembered sections. Where this is impractical, access shall 
e given to such papers. 

Separate conventions shaU be drawn between Austria and each of the 
dismerobered States insuring civil and commercial rights, etc. 



PART IV 

AUSTRIAN RIGHTS OUTSIDE EUROPE 

Rights, titles and privileges of the old Empire outside Europe are re- 
nounced and Austria agrees to recognize measures in respect of such rights 
which may be taken by the Powers. 

59 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Morocco. 

Rights and privileges acquired by the General Act of Algeciras of April 
7, 1906, and by the Franco-German Agreement of February 9, 1909, and 
November 4, 1911, are renounced. Treaties and arrangements between the 
old Empire and the Sherifian Empire are abrogated as of April 12, 1914. 

Austria will not intervene in negotiations between other powers and 
Morocco. The regime of the capitulations in Morocco is renounced by Austria 
and the French Protectorate recognized. 

The Sherifian Government shall be free to handle nationals of Austria as 
it deems proper and special privileges hitherto obtained by Austrians are 
abrogated. 

All Austrian property in Morocco passes to the Maghzen without com- 
pensation, including property of the Crown. As to private property of Aus- 
trian nationals, the Economic Clauses of this treaty shall govern. This 
extends to mining rights. 

Stale Bank of Morocco. 

Austria shall insure transfer to a representative of the French Go>^em- 
ment shares representing Austria's portion of the capital of the State Bank 
of Morocco. This representative shall administer these shares with the co- 
operation of the State Bank. This transfer does not prejudice debts owed by 
Austrian nationals to the State Bank. 

Moroccan goods entering Austria shall enjoy the same treatment accorded 
French goods. 

Egypt. 

The terms relating to Egypt are identical with those contained in the 
treaty with Germany. (See page 26.) 

Siam. 

The terms relating to Siam are identical with those contained in the 
treaty with Germany. (See page 26.) 

China. 

Austria renounces in favor of China all benefits and privileges resulting 
from the final protocol signed at Peking, September 7, 1901 (The Boxer 
Protocol). All indemnities thereunder are renounced as from August 14, 1917. 

From the coming into effect of this treaty the Powers shall apply, as con- 
cerns them respectively: 

(1) The Arrangement of August 29, 1902, regarding the new Chinese 
customs tariff; 

(2) The Whang-Poo Arrangement of September 27, 1905, and supple- 
ments. 

But China is not boiuid to grant Austria the privileges under those 
Arrangements which she accorded the old Empire. 

Austria cedes to China buildings, vessels and all other public property 
in the Austro-Hungarian Concession at Tientsin or elsewhere in Chinese 
territory. However, an exception is made as to diplomatic property and 
property in the Legation Quarter at Peking. Austria agrees to abrogation 
of the leases under which the Tientsin concession was held. China declares 
her intention to open the concession to international trade. In the abroga- 
tion of the Tientsin lease lots owned by nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Governments are excepted. 

Austria waives aU claims against China on account of internment of 
Austriem nationals. Renunciation is also provided of claims in connection 
with capture of Austro-Hxmgarian ships in China and licjuidation, sequestra- 
tion or control of Austrian properties, rights, etc., in Chma since August 14, 
1917. As to these liquidations, however, the economic clauses shall prevail. 

60 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 

PART V 

MILITARY AND NAVAL AND AIR CLAUSES 

Military Clauses. 

Within three months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the 
military forces of Austria shall be demobilized to the extent prescribed here- 
inafter. 

Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished. The Austrian 
Army shall in future only be recruited by meeuis of voluntary enlistment. 

The total military forces shall not exceed 30,000 men, including officers 
and depot troops. 

The proportion of officers shall not exceed one-twentieth of the toted 
effectives, and that of the non-commissioned officers one-fifteenth of the 
effectives. 

All organizations or preparations for war other than is permitted are 
forbidden. 

All measures of mobifization are forbidden. Plans for requisitioning 
animals or other transport are forbidden. 

The number of gendarmes, customs officers, foresters and police must 
not exceed the number similarly employed in 1913, and shall not be increased 
except to maintain the proportion to the population. 

These officials must not be assembled for miUtary exercises. 

Recruiting and Military Training. 

All oflBcers must be regulars. Officers retained in the present army must 
undertake to serve in it up to the age of 40. Officers released from the pres- 
ent 8urmy must not take part in military exercises, theoretical or practical. 

Officers appointed must undertake to serve for 20 years. 

The number of officers discharged for any reason before their term of 
service expires must not exceed in any year one-twentieth of the total. 

The enlistment period for non-conmiissioned officers and privates must 
be for not less than 12 consecutive years. 

The proportion of men discharged before their term expires must not 
exceed one-twentieth of the total strength. 

Schools, Educational Establishments, Military Clubs and Societies. 

The number of students attending military schools shall be strictly in 
proportion to vacancies. 

Superfluous miUtary schools shall be abofished. 

Educational establishments other than military schools, as well as sport- 
ing and other clubs, must not occupy themselves with any miUtary matters. 

Armament, Munitions and Material, Fortifications. 

Three months after the effective date of the treaty, the armament of 
the Austrian army shall not exceed prescribed figures. Any excess in effectives 
shall be used for replacements. 

The number and calibre of guns constituting the normal armament of 
existing fortified places in Austria shall be reported immediately to the Powers, 
and will constitute maximum amounts. 

Within three months, the amount of ammunition shall be reduced to 
1500 rounds per gun for guns of 105 mm. and under; 500 rounds per gun for 
guns of higher calibre. 

The manufacture of arms, munitions and war material shall be restricted 
to one government factory, limited to the material necessary for the forces 
authorized. 

Manufacture of sporting weapons unsuitable for military use is permitted. 

Within three months all unauthorized arms factories shall be closed or 

61 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



converted to commercial uses, and all arsenals shall be closed, and their staffs 
discharged, except in the cases of authorized depot arsenals. 

Within three months all arms, munitions and war material in excess of 
that authorized shall be handed over to the AlHed and Associated Powers. 

The importation and exportation of arms, munitions and war material 
is forbidden. Manufacture or importation of tanks and armored cars is 
forbidden. 

Naval Clauses. 

From the effective treaty date, all Austro-Hungarian warships, sub- 
marines included, are declared to be finally surrendered. All monitors, 
torpedo boats and armed vessels of the Danube Flotilla will be surrendered. 
Austria will, however, have the right to maintain on the Danube for river 
police, three patrol boats selected by the Commission. 

The auxihary cruisers and fleet auxiliaries named below will be disarmed 
and treated as merchant ships. (32 ships are named.) 

AH warships under construction shall be broken up, work commencing as 
soon as possible after the treaty date. 

Materials resulting from the brealdng up shall be used only for commercial 
purposes and may not be sold to foreign countries. 

Construction or acquisition of submarines, even for commercial purposes, 
is forbidden in Austria. 

All arms, ammunition and other naval war material, including mines and 
torpedoes which belonged to Austria-Hungary at the time of the armistice of 
November 3d, are declared fully surrendered. 

Use of Wireless. 

During the three months from the effective treaty date, the high-power 
wireless station at Vienna shall not be used to transmit inessages concerning 
military, naval and political questions of interest to Austria or its war alUes, 
without assent of the Powers. The station may be used for commercial 
messages under supervision of the Powers, who will name the wave length. 

During the period Austria shall not build high-power wireless stations 
in her own territory or in Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria or Turkey. 

Air Clauses. 

The armed forces of Austria must not include any military or naval air 
forces. No dirigible shall be kept. 

Within two months from the treaty date the personnel of air forces shall 
be demobilized. 

During the six months following the enforcement of the treaty, the manu- 
facture, import or export of aircraft or their parts is forbidden. 

On the coming into force of the treaty, all aeronautical material must be 
delivered at Austria's expense to the Powers, within three months. 

Inter-Allied Commissions of Control. 

AU military, naval and air clauses containing time Umits for execution shall 
be executed by Austria under control of Inter-Allied Commissions appointed 
by the Powers. 

It will be the special duty of commissions to receive from Austria notifica- 
tions regarding location of munitions, armament of works, and locations of 
factories for production of war materials. Commissions will take deUvery 
of munitions, supervise destruction of works or transforming of material 
and select points of delivery. 

General Articles. 

Austria undertakes not to send to any foreign country any military, 
naval or air mission, nor to allow such mission to leave her territory. 

The powers undertake that they will not enroll in nor attach to their 
forces any Austrian national for the the purposes of assisting in training such 

62 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



forces, or otherwise employ any Austrian as military, naval or aeronautic 
instructor. 

But France may recruit for her Foreign Legion in accordance with her 
laws. 

As long as the treaty remains in force Austria undertakes to submit to 
any investigation which the council of the League of Nations, acting if need 
be by majority vote, may consider necessary. 



PART VI 

PRISONERS OF WAR AND GRAVES 

This Part is identical with Part VI of the German Treaty (see page 29), 

PART VII 

PENALTIES 

Austria recognizes and assumes responsibility for warlike aggression 
against the Allied and Associated Powers. As to general clauses this Part is 
identical with Part VII. of the German treaty. (See page 30.) 

Additional sections of this Part pecuhar to the Austrian treaty Eire 
described as follows: 

The provisions relating to the surrender of persons guilty of criminal acts 
against nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers extend to the dismem- 
bered States. If transfer of nationahty from Austria has been effected the 
new State may try the case and inflict the punishment. 

REPARATION PAYMENTS. 
Article 181. 

Austria shall pay in the course of the years 1919, 1920 and the first four 
months of 1921, in such instalments and in such manner (whether in gold, 
commodities, ships, securities or otherwise) as the Reparation Commission 
may lay down, a reasonable sum which shall be determined by the Commission. 

Out of this sum the expenses of the armies of occupation subsequent to 
the Armistice of November 3, 1918, shall first be met, and such supplies of 
food and raw materials as may be judged by the Governments of the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers essential to enable Austria to meet her obUga- 
tions for reparation may also, with the approval of the said Govermnents, be 
paid for out of the above sum. The balamce shall be reckoned towards the 
liquidation of the amount due for reparation. 

The Reparation Commission is described and its powers fixed as in the 
German treaty. 

The sections relating to actual payments on account of reparation are as 
follows : 

The Reparation Commission shall receive instructions to 
take account of: 

(1) The actual economic and financial position of Austrian 
territory as delimited by the present Treaty; and 

(2) The diminution of its resources and of its capacity for 
payment resulting from the clauses of the present Treaty. 

63 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



As long as the position of Austria is not modified the Com- 
mission shall take account of these considerations in fixing the 
final amount of the obligations to be imposed on Austria, the 
payments by which these are to be discharged, and 
any postponement of payment of interest which may be asked 
for by Austria. 

(c) The Commission shall take from Austria, by way of 
security for and acknowledgment of her debt, gold bearer bonds 
free of all taxes or charges of every description estabhshed or to 
be established by the Austrian Government or by any authorities 
subject to them. These bonds wiU be delivered at any time that 
may be judged expedient by the Commission, and in three por- 
tions, of which the respective amounts wUl be also fixed by the 
Commission, the crowns gold being payable in conformity with 
the Financial Clauses: 

(1) A first issue in bearer bonds payable not later then May 
1, 1921, without interest. There shedl be specially apphed to 
the amortisation of these bonds the payments which Austria is 
pledged to make in conformity with this Part, after deduction 
of the sums used for the reimbursement of the ex-penses of the 
armies of occupation and other payments for foodstuflFs and raw 
materials. Such bonds as may not have been redeemed by May 
1, 1921, shall then be exchanged for new bonds of the same type 
as those provided for below. 

(2) A second issue in bearer bonds bearing interest at 2J^ 
per cent, between 1921 and 1926, and thereafter at 5 per cent, 
with an additional 1 per cent, for amortisation beginning in 
1926 on the whole amount of the issue. 

(3) An undertaking in writing to issue, when, but not until, 
the Commission is satisfied that Austria can meet the interest 
and sinking fund obligations, a further instalment of bearer 
bonds bearing interest at 5 per cent., the time and mode of 
payment of principal and interest to be determined by the 
Commission. 

The dates for the payment of interest, the manner of employ- 
ing the amortisation fund and all other questions relating to 
the issue, management and regulation of the bond issue shall 
be determined by the Commission from time to time. 

Further issues by way of acknowledgment and security may 
be required as the Commission subsequently determines from 
time to time. 

In case the Reparation Commission should proceed to fix 
definitely and no longer provisionally the sum of the common 
charges to be borne by Austria as a result of the claims of the 
Allied and Associated Powers, the Commission shall immediately 
annul aU bonds which have been issued in excess of this siun. 

(d) In the event of bonds, obligations or other evidence of 
indebtedness issued by Austria by way of security for or ac- 
knowledgment of her reparation debt being disposed of out- 
right, not by way of pledge, to persons other than the several 
Governments in whose favour Austria's original reparation in- 
debtedness was created, an amount of such reparation indebted- 
ness shall be deemed to be extinguished corresponding to the 
nominal value of the bonds, etc., so disposed of outright, and 
the obligation of Austria in respect of such bonds shall be con- 

64 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



fined to her liabilities to the holders of the bonds, as expressed 
upon their face. 

(e) The damage for repairing, reconstructing and rebuilding 
property situated in the invaded and devastated districts, in- 
cluding reinstallation of furniture, machinery and other equip- 
ment, will be calculated according to the cost at the date when 
the work is done. 

(/) Decisions of the Commission relating to the total of 
partial cancellation of the capital or interest of any of the 
verified debt of Austria must be accompanied by a statement 
of its reasons. 

Livestock. 

In connection with reparation of livestock, this treaty provides for the 
following transfers: 

To the Italian Government, 9,050 domestic animals; 
To the Serb-Croat-Slovene Government, 4,825 domestic animals; 
To the Roumanian Government, 5,025 domestic animals. 
The animals deUvered shall be of average health and condi- 
tion. 

Reparation in Goods. 

In monthly instalments as the Reparation Commission shall direct, 
Austria shall deliver to the Powers supplies of furniture in hard and soft wood 
to Em extent justified by seizures in the war. The price of this furniture shall 
be credited on the reparation account. 

Austria shall give to the Powers an option running for five years for aimual 
delivery of raw materials, as follows : 

Timber and timber memufactures; 

Iron and iron alloys; 

Magnesite. 

The quantities of these materials for which the Powers may call shall be 
limited to annusJ pre-war importations of the same commodities from Austria, 
revised to accord with the size and resources of Austria as fixed in this treaty. 

Prices and practices in connection with these commodities shall be on 
the same basis as Austria's domestic trade in them. 

The Commission shall arrange details of notice to be given of exercise 
of these options, due regard being had for Austria's internal industrial situa- 
tion. 

Cables. 

Austria renounces in favor of Italy ownership of cables connecting with 
Italy and in favor of the AUied and Associated Power cables connecting with 
the new States. The States shall provide for working and upkeep of these 
cables. Credit for the cables taken shall be given on the reparation account. 
The Trieste-Corfu cable arrangement between the private owners and 
Austria sheJl continue, Italy being substituted for Austria. 

Special Provisions, Restoration of Records, Etc. 

Austria undertakes to surrender to the Powers records, documents, 
objects of art and antiquity and scientific and other kindred material taken 
from invaded territory. The same provision extends to require return of 
property of this character to States now dismembered. As to objects brought 
from private owners, the financial clauses shaU apply where appropriate. 

Historical Records. 

In respect of ceded territories, Austria shall deUver to the Po\vers all 
documents and historical material possessed by pubUc institutions which may 

65 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



have a direct bearing on the history of these territories, which have been 
removed during the last ten years, and in the case of territory ceded to Italy, 
since 1861. In the case of the new dismembered State the period shall be 
twenty years. 

Austria recognizes that she remains boimd to Italy imder the Treaty of 
Zurich of 1859, of Vienna of 1866, and of Florence of 1868, to restore such 
articles therein referred to as remain in Austria. 

Spoliation of Italy. 

Within twelve months a committee of three jurists, appointed by the 
Reparation Commission shall decide whether the Hapsburgs or other Houses 
which have reigned in Italy have violated rights of ItaMan provinces in carry- 
ing off certain valuable articles. Italy and Austria agree to abide by the 
decision. 

Other Special Restitutions. 

Belgium, Poland and Czecho-SIovakia may submit claims for restitution 
to be examined by the same committee. They also and Austria will abide by 
the decision of the Committee. 

Crown Collections. 

Regarding the famous historical collections of the Austro-Hungarian 
Crown, the articles comprising them are not to be dispersed for twenty years 
and in that period the Government of the ceded and dismembered territories 
may lay claim to such of these objects as form naturally a part of the intellec- 
tual patrimony of those territories. Austria undertakes amicably to negotiate 
the return to such territories of articles of this class on terms of reciprocity. 
She shall make inventories and catalogues to further this purpose and mean- 
while students who Eire nationeds of the AUies and Associates shall have 
access to them. 

Art Treasures Subject to Restoration. 

Following is a list of the more important art treasures on which the com- 
mittee mentioned above shall pass, classified by the likely claimants: 

Tuscany. 

Crown jewels of the Princess Electress of Medici and 
other domanial property of the Medici removed from Venice; 

Medici furniture and plate and the Jewel or Aspasios owed 
to the Crown of Tuscany; 

Astronomical instruments of the Academy of Cimento 
removed by the House of Lorraine; 

MODENA. 

A "Virgin" of Andrea del Sarto and four drawings of 
Corregio removed by Duke Francis V; 

The MSS. of Biblia Vulgata; Breviarium Romanum and 
Officium Beatae Virginis carried off by Duke Francis V, to- 
gether with the bronzes he took; 

Two pictures by Salvator Rosa and a portrait by Dosso 
Do3si, long claimed by the Duke of Modena on old account; 

Palermo. 

Objects made at Palermo for the Norman kings in the 
twelfth century and carried off to Vienna; 

Naples. 

Ninety-eight MSS. taken from the Library of S. Giovanni 
a Carbonara and other Neapolitan libraries and sent to Vienna; 

Various other documents taken from the State archives at 
Milan, Mamtua, Venice and Florence; 

66 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



Belgium. 

A Rubens triptych, old armour and arms, the Treasure of 
the Toison d'Or, old coins and MSS. taken from Brussels; 

Poland. 

The gold cup of King Ladislas IV and an undescribed 
"object" removed before the Partition of Poland; 

CzECHO-SlO V AKI A . 

Documents, historical memoirs, etc., removed by order of 
the Empress Maria Theresa, and archives of the Royal Aulic 
Chancellery of Bohemia and works of art from the Fioyal Cha- 
teau of Prague. 



PART IX 

FINANCIAL CLAUSES 

Reparation a First Charge. 

Subject to exceptions of the Reparations Commission, the cost of repara- 
tion and other treaty costs shall constitute a first charge upon the assets and 
revenues of Austria. An embargo is laid upon the export of Austrian gold 
effective until May 1, 1921, except by permission of the Powers. 

The cost of the armies of occupation within the new frontiers of Austria 
shall be paid, these payments to be made in crowns or other lawful money at 
agreed exchange rates. Other costs shall be paid in the currency of the coun- 
try to which payment is due. 

Surrender of Material Confirmed. 

The surrender of material under the terms of the Armistice is expressly 
confirmed. Of this material, that having no mifitary value shall be assessed 
and credited to the Austrians on the reparation account, excepting, of course 
material or goods tm-ned over which previously had been taken from nationals, 
of the AJhed and Associated Powers. 

Priority of Charges. 

Following is the priority of the charges against Austria: Cost of armies 
of occupation under Armistice; cost of armies under this treaty; cost of 
reparations provided in this treaty; cost of other and supplemental conven- 
tions. The Powers may vary this order shghtly in connection with food sup- 
plies. 

The Powers retain the right to dispose of enemy property in their juris- 
diction at the date of signature of this treaty. But lawful mortgages made 
before the war between nationals of Austria and those of the Powers are not 
prejudiced. 

Disposal of Debts of Transferred Territories. 

Those portions of the former Empire dismembered by the treaty shall 
assume proportions of the debts of the Empire secured by railways, salt mines 
and other property. The Reparations Commission shall have discretion in the 
allocation of this debt. After allocation, responsibiUty shall not go beyond 
the new state. The amount allocated shall be deducted from any sums owed 
by dismembered States to the old Empire. However, there shall be no shift- 
ing of specific property as security, no matter how it may be allocated among 
the new states. The same property must secure as before the war. Overdue 
instalments owed by Austria on account of purchase of railways or similar 
property shall be counted as among the debts secured within the meaning 
of these terms. 

67 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



With some latitude provided for exceptions, debts allocated to new states 
shall be expressed in such new state's currency and in exchange relation to 
the Austrian kronen on a basis which existed at the dismemberment. Where 
these debts were expressed in foreign currency, the ex-pression shall continue; 
where they were expressed in Austrian gold, the British pound Sterling Euid 
the United States gold dollar shedl be substituted. 

Old Austrian Debt. 

The dismembered states sh£dl assume fair proportions of the imsecured 
bonded debt of the old Empire, the distribution being made in accordance 
with the average revenues of the provinces affected during 1911, 1912 and 
1913. Bosnia and Herzegovina are excepted from this. Austrian debts of 
other categories are chargeable to Austria alone. But these terms do not 
apply to Austrian currency deposited with the Austro-Hungarian Bank as 
security for note issue. 

For the purposes of these terms, the old Austrian unsecured debt shall 
be regarded the debt as it stood on July 28, 1914, after deducting that portion 
which represents the hability of the former Hungarian Government under 
certain special imperial statutes. 

Within three months the new states shall stamp the bonds representing 
that part of the general debt allocated to them. If in the inventory, shortages 
in relation to the amount allocated appear, the new state shall issue enough 
new bonds to make up such shortages. Generally the old terms shall be 
followed excepting that the new state is responsible. Contrariwise, new states 
finding on inventory more of the old bonds than allocated to them, shall have 
credit. Provision is made for the exchange of old bonds for new by the holders. 
Under the pleasure of the Reparations Commission arrangements for funding 
and consohdating these various bonds may be effected. 

Provision is made for treating certain sections as local areas with pre- 
served integrity as borrowing units, as, for instance, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

The Austrian War Debt Bonds. 

Each dismembered state shall stamp its proportion of old Austrian war 
bonds, withdraw them and replace them by certificates, the bonds being 
sent to the Reparations Commission. New states need not recognize these 
war bonds as their obUgations unless they elect. If the new states repudiate 
the war bonds, as they are free to do, neither they nor their nationals may 
have recourse to any dismembered state. Austria alone is responsible for 
the old war debt. 

Within two months of signature of this treaty, the dismembered States 
shall stamp the currency notes issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank existing 
within their territories. The new states have the option of replacing, within 
twelve months, these notes with their own. Any notes withdrawn by the 
new governments shall be held at the disposal of the Reparations Commis- 
sion. The same course shall be followed as to replaced notes. 

Liquidation of Austro-Hungarian Bank. 

The Austro-Hungariam Bank shall be liquidated from the day after the 
signature of the treaty. 

Following are the instructions, in detail, for this important liquidation: 

The liquidation shall be conducted by receivers specially 
appointed for that purpose by the Reparation Commission. In 
conducting the liquidation of the bank, the receivers shall fol- 
low the rules laid down in the Statutes or other vaUd instru- 
ments regulating the constitution of the bank, subject however 
to the special provisions of this Article. In the case of any 
doubt arising as to the interpretation of the rules concerning 
the liquidation of the bank, whether laid down in these Arti- 

68 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



cles and Annexes or in the Statutes of the bank, the decision of 
the Reparation Commission or any arbitrator appointed by it 
for that purpose shall be final. 

The currency notes issued by the bank subsequent to Octo- 
ber 27, 1918, shall have a claim on the securities issued by the 
Austrian and Hungarian Governments, both former and exist- 
ing, and deposited with the bank by those Governments as 
security for these notes, but they shall not have a claim on any 
other assets of the bank. 

The currency notes issued by the bank on or prior to Octo- 
ber 27, 1918 (in so far as they are entitled to rank at all in 
conformity with these Articles), shall all rank equally as claims 
against all the assets of the bank, other than the Austrian and 
Hungeuian Government securities deposited as security for the 
various note issues. 

The securities deposited by the Austrian and Hungarian 
Governments, both former and existing, with the bank as se- 
ciu-ity for the currency notes issued on or prior to October 27, 
1918, shall be canceled in so far as they represent the notes 
converted in the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy as it existed on July 28, 1914, by States to which 
territory of that monarchy is transferred or by States arising 
from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including Austria 
and the present Hungary. 

The remainder of the securities deposited by the Austrian 
and Hungarian Governments, both former and existing, with the 
bank as security for the currency notes issued on or prior to 
October 27, 1918, shall be retained in force as security for, and 
in so feu" as they represent, the notes issued on or prior to 
October 27, 1918, which on June 15, 1919, were outside the limits 
of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy as it existed on July 
28, 1914, that is to say, firstly, aU notes of this description which 
Eu-e presented to the Reparation Commission in accordance with 
paragraph 4 of this Article,* and, secondly, all notes of this de- 
scription which may be held elsewhere and are presented to the 
receivers of the bank. 

No claims on account of any other currency notes issued on 
or prior to October 27, 1918, shall rank either against the general 
assets of the bank or against the securities deposited by the 
Austrian and Himgarian Governments, both former and exist- 
ing, as security for the notes, and any balance of such securities 
remaining after the amount of securities mentioned in para- 
graphs 10 and 11 has been calculated and deducted shedl be 
canceled. 

All securities deposited by the Austrian and Hungarian 
Groyernments, both former and existing, with the bank as se- 
curity for currency note issues and which are maintained in 
force shall be the obligations respectively of the Governments 
of Austria and the present Hungary only and not of any other 
States. 

The holders of the currency notes of the Austro-Hungarian 
Bank shall have no recourse against the Governments of Austria 
or the present Hungary or any other Government in respect of 
any loss which they may suffer as the result of the liqmdation 
of the bank. 



♦Providing that withdrawn notes shall be held at the disposal of the Clominission. 

69 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



The new States shall furnish the Commission with full records and data 
regarding these withdrawals and replacements. The Commission shall give 
receipts which will form the basis for claims against the assets of the Bank in 
liquidation. Upon completion of hquidation, the Commission shall destroy 
the withdrawn notes. No notes issued on or prior to October 27, 1918, 
wherever held, will rank as claims against the Bank unless they are presented 
through the Government of the coimtry in which they are heJ.d. 

Coinage. 

Each dismembered State, including Austria, shall deal as it thinlis fit 
with token coinage and no State may have recourse against any other State 
on this account. 

Disposal of Old Crmvn Lands. 

Each new or dismembered state of the old Empire shall acquire all 
property and possessions within its territory which belonged to the old im- 
perial or present Austrian Government. Not only strictly government prop- 
erty but also crown lands are included. 

The Beparations Commission shall deduct the value of such possessions 
from Austria's reparation account and debit the recipient on the same account. 
Special provisions are made to respect the integrity of certain properties held 
by cities, communes, etc. 

Austria Renounces Foreign Banking Interests. 

Austria renounces, so far as she is concerned, all rights accorded to her or 
her nationals by Treaties, Conventions or Agreements, of whatsoever kind, to 
representation upon or participation in the control or administration of Com- 
missions, State Banks, Agencies or other financial or economic organizations 
of an international character exercising powers of control or administration 
and operating in any of the AUied or Associated States, or in Germany 
Hvmgary, Bulgaria or Turkey, or in the dependencies of these States, or in 
the former Bussian Empire. 

Turkish Gold Surrendered. 

Austria agrees to dehver within one month of signature to the Powers 
the gold deposited in the Austro-Hungarian Bank in the name of the Council 
of the Administration of the Ottomein Public Debt as security for the first 
issue of Turkish Government currency notes. 

Brest-Litovsk Treaty Renounced. 

Austria renounces any benefit from the terms of the Treaty of Brest- 
Litovsk and that of Bucharest and supplements. Money, securities, negotia- 
able instruments and goods received under these treaties are to be restored 
to Boumania, or to the Powers. Final disposition of these shall later be deter- 
mined Ly the Powers. 

German Gold Transfer Recognized. 

Austria recognizes the gold transfer exacted from Germany in the treaty 
with that country, this gold having been security for loans to Austria. 

Assumption of Utility Holdings. 

It is provided that on six months' notice Austria shall on behalf of the 
Beparations Commission acquire any rights of her nationals in public utility, 
undertakings and concessions in Bussia, Turkey, Germany, Hungary or 
Bulgaria, their dependencies or possessions, or the dismembered states and 
defiver these rights to the Commission. Austria shall indemnify her nationals 
for such acquisitions and shall have credit therefore on the reparation account. 
Austria imdertakes to prevent the impeding of such transfers by the countries 
named. 

70 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



Austria undertakes to transfer to the Powers claims she has against 
Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, credit to be given her on the 
reparation account. 

Standards of Acceptable Money. 

Monetary obligations arising from the treaty expressed in gold kronen, 
shall unless specificiaUy provided for otherwise, be payable at the option 
of the creditor in pounds sterUng in London, gold dollars in New York, gold 
francs in Paris and gold lire in Rome, all to be of weight and fineness provided 
by law on January 1, 1914. 

Adjustments of Companies. 

Any financial adjustments, such as those relating to any banking and 
insurance companies, savings banks, postal savings banks, land banks, mort- 
gage companies or other similar institutions, operating within the territory of 
the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, necessitated by the partition of 
that Monarchy and the resettlement of public debts and currency provided 
for by these Articles, shall be regulated by agreement between the various 
Governments concerned in such a manner as shall best secure equitable treat- 
ment to all the parties interested. In case the Governments concerned are 
unable to come to an agreement on any question arising out of this financial 
adjustment, or in case any Government is of opinion that its nationals have 
not received equitable treatment, the Reparation Commission shall, on the 
application of any one of the Governments concerned, appoint an arbitrator 
or arbitrators, whose decision shall be final. 

Pension Liability. 

Where nationals of the old Empire have become nationals of new states 
lability of Austria under old civil and military pension laws expires. 



PART X 

ECONOMIC CLAUSES 

Austria undertakes that goods, natural products or manufactured articles, 
exported to or imported from any one of the Alhed or Associated States, shall 
not be subject to other or higher duties, or discrimination in procedure, even 
by indirect means, such as customs regulations, than are imposed upon like 
goods to or from other States. Every favor, immunity or privilege regarding 
the importation, exportation or transit of goods granted by Austria to any 
foreign coimtry whatsoever shall automatically and without request be ex- 
tended to all the Alhed and Associated States. Products in transit by ports 
v/hich, before the war, were in the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, shall 
for three years enjoy reductions of duty specified under the Austro-Hungarian 
Customs Tariff of February 13, 1906, when imported by such ports into Austria. 

However, the Alhed and Associated Powers agree that these provisions 
will not be invoked to secure the advantage of arrangements made by Austria 
with Hungary or the Czecho-Slovak State. 

For six months after the treaty becomes effective, Austria will not impose 
import duties higher than the most favorable duties apphed July 28, 1914. 
For the succeeding thirty (30) months, this provision shall continue to be 
apphed exclusively to importations of fruits (fresh and dried), fresh vegetables, 
oUve oil, eggs, pigs and pork products, and five poultry, in so far as such 
products rates conventionalized by treaties in effect July 28, 1914, with the 
AUied or Associated Powers. 

The Czecho-Slovak State and Poland undertake that they will not for 
fifteen years impose any exjrort charges on coal to Austria different from 

71 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



charges on coal sent to other countries. Special agreements shall be made 
betAveen the three as to the supply of coal and raw materials reciprocally. 
Pending such agreements, but in no case more than three years, the Czecho- 
slovak State and Poland will not impose any export duty or other restrictions 
of coal or lignite exports to Austria, up to a reasonable quantity, to be fixed, 
faihng agreement between the States, by the Reparations Committee. Aus- 
tria in return shall furnish the Czecho-Slovak State and Poland raw materials 
as ordered by the Commission. The Czecho-Slovak State and Poland under- 
take during the same period to ensure that purchasers in Austria have as 
favorable opportunity for purchase of such products as citizens of any other 
country. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to recognize the flag flown by the 
vessels of any Contracting Party having no seacoast. 

Austria undertakes to adopt all necessary legislative and administrative 
measures to protect goods of the Allied or Associated Powers from unfair 
competition, as provided in the treaty with Germany. 

Austria undertakes not to subject nationals of the Allied or Associated 
Powers to any taxes or restrictions not imposed on other aliens or her own 
citizens, and furthermore to recognize any new nationality acquired by her 
former nationals. 

Obhgations imposed in the customs clauses shall cease to have effect five 
years from the date the Treaty becomes effective, unless otherwise specified, 
or unless the Council of the League of Nations shaU at least twelve months 
before the expiration of that period extend them, with or without amendment. 
Nevertheless, after three years, unless the League of Nations decides other- 
wise, an Allied or Associated Power shall not require fulfillment of the clauses 
regarding customs charges and regulations unless that Power accords correla- 
tive treatment to Austria. 

If the Austrian Government engages in international trade, it shall not 
in respect thereof, have any rights, privileges or immunities of sovereignty. 

Other general provisions are identical with Part X of the German 
treaty (page 35). 

MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL TREATIES 

The provisions in respect to multilateral and bilateral treaties are identical 
with those contained in the German treaty (see page 35) and in addition Austria 
undertakes to adhere also to the conventions for the protection of literary 
and artistic works, for the suppression of white phosphorus in matches, and 
regarding the unification of commercial statistics. 

Clearing Office System. 

The system of clearing oflices established for the liquidation of interna- 
tional debts is identical with that established in the Treaty with Germany 
(page 36) excepting that the foUowing provision is added: 

The amount of all taxes or imposts on capital levied or to 
be levied on Austria on the property, rights and interests of the 
nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers from November 3, 
1918, until three months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, or, in the case of property, rights or interests 
which have been subjected to exceptional measures of war, 
until restitution in accordance with the present Treaty, shall 
be restored to the owners. 

Property Rights and Interests. 

The sections deaUng with these subjects including such matters as con- 
tracts, trademarks, copyrights, etc., are in every respect identical with the 
provisions of the similar sections of the Treaty with Germemy. 

72 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



Industrial Property. 

This section in the treaty is identical with the general provisions of the 
German treaty (page 42), except for the following new matter: 

Individuals formerly nationals of the Austrian Empire, including Bosnia- 
Herzegovinians, those who acquire the nationahty under the present Treaty, 
of an AUied of Associated Power, are designated in the provisions following 
as "nationals of the former Austrian Empire, "^the remainder as "Austrian 
nationals." 

All transferred nationals shall continue to enjoy in Austria all the rights 
they were entitled to, in industrial, hterary or artistic property under legisla- 
tion in force at the time of the transfer. Questions concerning the nationals 
of the former Austrian Empire as well as Austrian Nationals not dealt with 
in the present Treaty shall form the subject of a special convention between 
the states concerned, Austria included, within three months from the effective- 
ness of the Treaty and not to conflict with its terms. 

Restoration without delay to nationals of tlie former Austrian Empire 
of their property, rights and interests, situated in Austrian territory. Taxes 
and imposts on capital levied or increased on the property, rights and interests 
of nationals of the former Austrian Empire since November 3, 1918, shall 
be returned to the owners and the property, rights or interests restored shall 
not be subject to any tax levied in respect of any other property or business 
owned by the same person. If taxes have been paid in anticipation on 
property removed from Austria, the proper proportion for the period subse- 
quent to removal, shall be returned. Legacies, donations and funds given 
or established in the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy for the benefits of 
nationals of the former Austrian Empire, shall be placed by Austria, where 
the funds in her territory, the disposition of AUied or Associated Power of 
which the person interested is now a national, in the condition the funds 
were in July 28, 1914, taking account of proper payments. 

Notwithstanding previous provisions the property rights and interests 
of Austrian nationals or companies controlled by them, situated in the terri- 
tories of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, shall not be subject to 
retention or hquidation and shall be restored to the owner freed from any 
measure of this kind. 

Contracts for the sale of goods for delivery by sea concluded before Jan- 
uary 1, 1917, between nationals of the former Austrian Empure on the one 
part and the administration of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 
Austria, or Bosnia-Herzegovina or Austrian nationals, on the other part, 
shall be annulled except in respect to a debt arising thereunder. All other 
contracts between such parties made before November 1, 1918, and were 
in force on that date will be maintained. 

With regard to prescriptions, hmitations, and forfeitures in the trans- 
ferred territories, the rule of suspension shall be apphed with substitution for 
the expression "outbreak of war" of the expression "date, which shall be 
fixed by administrative decision of each Alhed or Associated Power, at which 
relations between the parties became impossible in fact or in law" and for 
the expression "duration of the war" of the expression "period between the 
date above indicated and that of the coming into force of the present Treaty." 

Transfer of property rights or interests belonging to a company 
incorporated under the laws of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 
which AUied or Associated nationals are interested to a company incorporated 
in accordance with the laws of any other power, is not to be impeded in any 
way by Austria, and she undertakes to faciUtate such transfer and render 
assistance in the restoration of property, rights or interests to Allied or Asso- 
ciated nationals or corporations of property in Austria or in transferred 
territory. 

The clearing office system shaU not apply to debts between Austrian 

73 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



nationals and nationals of the former Austrian Empire, and subject to certain 
provisions in the case of new states these debts shall be paid in the legal 
ciurency of the state of which the national of former Austrian Empire has 
become a national with an exchange rate equal to the average quoted on the 
Geneva Exchange during the two months preceding November 1, 1918. 

INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

Insurance companies whose principal place of business was in territory 
previously part of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, shall have the 
right to carry on their business for ten years after the effectiveness of the 
Treaty in Austrian territory, without the rights they enjoyed before transfer 
being affected by the change of nationahty and no higher taxes or charges 
shall be imposed upon them than on national companies nor any measure in 
derogation of their rights of property not imposed on Austrian companies 
and adequate compensation shall be paid in event of the apphcation of any 
such measures. The provisions shall apply only so long as Austrian companies, 
previously carrying on business in transferred territories, are given reciprocal 
treatment. 

Special agreements will determine the division of the property of associa- 
tions or pubhc corporations carrying on their functions in territory which is 
divided in consequence of the present Treaty. 

_ A special convention shall determine all questions relative to the records, 
registers, and copies in connection with the protection of industrial, literary 
or artistic property and fix their eventual transfer. 

The Austrian Government undertakes without prejudice to other pro- 
visions of the Treaty to hand over to the proper Power such portion of the 
reserves accumulated by the Government or administrations of the former 
Austro-Hungarian monarchy or by pubhc or private organizations imder 
their control, as is attributable to the carrying on of Social or State Insurance 
in such territory. The Power receiving the funds must apply them to the 
performance of the obligations arising rnider such insurance, and the condi- 
tions of dehvery shall be determined by special conventions. Where the 
special conventions are not concluded within three months after the effective- 
ness of the Treaty the conditions of transfer shall in each case be determined 
by a Commission which shall recommend suitable action to the Council of 
the League of Nations, whose decisions shall bind Austria and the other 
Government concerned. 



PART XI 

AERIAL NAVIGATION 

This Part in the Austrian Treaty is identical with Part XI in the Treaty 
with Germany (see page 43). 

PART XII 

PORTS, WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS 

Section I 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 

The general provisions of this Part are identical with those of Part XII 
in the German treaty (see page 44) except as to sections in the German 
treaty applicable locally and the following in this treaty: 

74 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



CLAUSES RELATING TO THE DANUBE 

General Clauses Relating to River Systems Declared International. 

The Danube from Ulm shall be international, together with the navigable 
parts of the river which provide more than one state with access to the sea, and 
that portion of the Morava (March) and the Thaya (Theiss) forming the 
frontier between Czecho-SlovaMa and Austria and waterways cormecting 
navigable parts of the river. The contemplated Rhine-Danube navigable 
waterway also would be included. 

The nationals, property and flags of all countries shall be treated equally 
on the international waterways. 

Austrian vessels must obtain authority to carry passengers and goods 
between Austrian ports and those of an allied country. 

Fair charges may be levied against allied vessels plying on the specified 
rivers in proportion to the expenditures necessary to keep the channels in 
navigable condition, without any unnecessary detailed examination of cargoes. 

Equal rights for aUied vessels in international waters are provided. 
When the river forms a frontier, passengers and goods shall be exempt from 
all customs formalities. 

No dues of any kind shall be levied along the course or at the mouth of 
the international waterways axcept those specified. Bona fide customs and 
harbor charges by the riparian states are permissible, however. 

Riparian states are required to maintain safe and satisfactory conditions 
of navigation on the international waterways. Complaint of neglect to carry 
out this provision may be made by the riparian states to the tribunal created 
for this purpose by the League of Nations. 

The tribimal is armed with the necessary power to enforce suspension or 
suppression of works undertaken by the riparian states of a nature which 
would impede navigation in the international section. 

The temporary regime shall be superseded by one to be laid down in a 
General Convention drawn up by the Allies, and approved by the League of 
Nations, relating to the waterways recognized in such convention as having 
an international character. This Convention would apply to the specified 
river systems as international, and Austria undertakes to adhere to the General 
Convention. 

Concession by Austria to the Allies, within a maximum period of three 
months from the date of notification to be given her, of a proportion of the 
tugs and vessels remaining registered in the ports of the Danube river system 
after the deduction of those surrendered by way of restitution or reparation is 
provided. Austria shall also cede materisd of all kinds necessary to the AUies 
for the utihzation of the river system. 

The number of tugs and boats to be surrendered would be determined by 
an arbitrator nominated by the United States, and all vessels turned over to 
the Allies must be in good operating condition. Where the siurender of the 
vessels involves a change of ownership, the arbitrator shall determine the 
rights of the former owners as of October 15, 1918, and the amount of com- 
pensation to be paid, and to whom the compensation should revert. Although 
final allocation of the surrendered vessels will be made by the arbitrator, a 
joint commission, composed of representatives of the Allied countries would 
operate the vessels pending allocation, the net receipts of the operation of the 
vessels to be disposed of by the Reparation Commission. 

Special Clauses Relating to the Danube. 

The European Commission of the Danube reassumes the powers it pos- 
sessed before the war, composed, however, only of representatives of the Allies, 
and where the competence of the Commission ceases, the Danube systems 
will be governed by a commission representing the riparian states. 

75 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



Austria is pledged to accept the regime to be laid down for the Danube 
by a Conference of Powers to meet one year after the Treaty goes into force. 
Tne country also is pledged to make to the Exiropetm Commission of the 
Danube all restitutions, and indemnities for damages inflicted on the Com- 
mission during the war. 

Hydraulic System. 

Agreements shall be made between the Austrian states to safeguard the 
interests and rights acquired by each of them, when use is made of water or 
hydraulic power, the source of which is on the territory of another state. 
Faihng an agreement, the matter shall be regulated by an arbitrator appointed 
by the Coimcil of the League of Nations. 

Pending an agreement, central electric stations and waterworks shall be 
required to continue the supply up to an amoimt corresponding to the con- 
tracts in force November 3, 1918. 

RAILWAYS 

Freedom of Transit to Adriatic. 

Free access to the Adriatic Sea is accorded Lo Austria, who will enjoy free- 
dom of transit over the territories and in the ports severed from the former 
Austro- Hungarian monarchy. Special conventions between the states or 
administrations concerned wili lay down the conditions of the exercise of this 
right and will settle in particular the method of using the ports and the free 
zones existing in them, the establishment of international joint services and 
tariffs, including through tickets and way-bills, and the maintenance of the 
Convention of Berne of October 14, 1890, and its supplementary provisions 
until its replacement by a new convention. Freedom of transit will extend to 
postal, telegraphic and telephonic services. 

With the object of insuring regular utiUzation of the railroads of the 
former Austro-Hungarian monarchy owned by private companies which will 
as a result of the treaty be situated in the territory of several states, the admin- 
istrative and technical reorganization of the Unes shall be regulated by agree- 
ment between the companies and the states. In case of failure to agree, the 
question shall be submitted to arbitrators designated by the council of the 
League of Nations. 

Within five years from the going into force of the treaty, Italy may require 
the construction or improvement on Austrian territory of the new trans- Alpine 
lines of the Col de Reschen and the Pas de Predil. Unless Austria decides to 

Eay for the works herself, the cost of construction or improvement shall be paid 
y Italy. An arbitrator appointed by the council of the League of Nations 
shall determine the portion of the cost which must be repaid by Austria to 
Italy on account of the increase of revenue on the Austrian railway system 
resulting from these works. Austria is required to hand over to Italy gratui- 
tously the surveys for the construction of the following railway lines: 

The line from Tarvis to Trieste by Raibl, Plezzo, Caporetto, Canale 
and Gorizia; 

The local line from S. Lucia de Tolmino to Vaporetto; 

The line from Tarvis to Plezzo (new scheme) ; 

The Reschen line coimecting Landeck and Mais. 

In view of the importance to the Czecho-Slovakia state of free communi- 
cation between that state and the Adriatic, Austria recognizes the right of 
that state to run its own treuns over the section of certain railway lines 
included within her territory, but these trains shall not engage in local traffic 
except by agreement. Such running powers will include the right to estabhsh 
sheds with small shops for minor repairs to locomotives and roUing stock and 
to appoint representatives when necessary to supervise the working of trains. 
The conditions under which the rights of the Czecho-Slovak state shall be 

76 



TREATY OF PEACE WITH AUSTRIA 



exercised shall be laid down in a convention between its railway administration 
and that of the Austrian systems concerned subject to arbitration and points 
of difference by an arbitrator nominated by Great Britain. 

In the event of this agreement as to the interpretation of the convention or 
of difficulties arising unprovided for in the convention, the same form of arbi- 
tration will be conducted until such time as the League of Nations may lay 
down some other procedure. 



PART XIII 

LABOR PROVISIONS 

In the Austrian Treaty this Part is identical with Part XIII of the Treaty 
with Germany (see page 46). 

PART XIV 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 

Austria undertakes to accept the conventions made by the Allied and 
Associated Powers with other powers in respect of traffic in arms and liquors. 

The remainder of this Ptu-t is practically identical with Part XV of the 
Treaty with Germany (see page 47). 



77 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



DECLARATIONS OF WAR AND SEVERANCES OF 
DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN NATIONS 

Following is a complete list of the declarations of war and severances of 
diplomatic relations, with the date of each, in connection with the present war: 

DECLARATIONS OF WAR 
Austria v. Belgium, August 28, 1914. 
Austria v. Japan, August 27, 1914. 
Austria v. Montenegro, August 9, 1914. 
Austria v. Russia, August 6, 1914. 
Austria v. Serbia, July 28, 1914. 
Brazil V. Germany, October 26, 1917. 
Bulgaria v. Roumania, September 1, 1916. 
Bulgaria v. Serbia, October 14, 1915. 
China v. Austria, August 14, 1917. 
China v. Germany, August 14, 1914. 
Cuba V. Germany, April 7, 1917. 
Cuba V. Austria, December 16, 1917. 
France v. Austria, August 12, 1914. 
France v. Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. 
France v. Germany, August 3, 1914. 
Germany v. Belgium, August 4, 1914. 
Germany v. France, August 3, 1914. 
Germany v. Portugal, March 9, 1916. 
Germany v. Roumania, August 28, 1916. 
Germany v. Russia, August 1, 1914. 
Great Britain v. Austria, August 13, 1914. 
Great Britain v. Bulgaria, October 15, 1915. 
Great Britain v. Germany, August 4, 1914. 
Great Britain v. Tiu-key, Wovember 5, 1914. 

Greece (Provisional Government) v. Bulgaria, November 23, 1916. 
Greece (Government of Alexander) v. Bulgaria, July 2, 1917. 
Greece (Provisioned Government) v. Germany, November 23, 1916. 
Greece (Government of Alexander) v. Germany, July 2, 1917. 
Guatemala v. Germany, April 21, 1918. 
Haiti V. Germany, July 12, 1918. 
Honduras v. Germany, July 19, 1918. 
Italy V. Austria, May 24, 1915. 
Italy V. Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 
Italy V. Germany, August 29, 1916. 
Italy V. Turkey, August 21, 1915. 
Japan v. Germany, August 23, 1914. 
Liberia v. Germany, August 4, 1917. 
Nicaragua v. Austria, May 6, 1918. 

78 



DECLARATIONS OF WAR 



Nicaragua v. Germany, May 6, 1918. 

Panama v. Germany, April 7, 1917. 

Panama v. Austria, December 10, 1917. 

Portugal (resolution authorizing intervention as an ally of England) v. Ger- 
many, November 23, 1914. 

Portugal (military aid granted) v. Germany, May 19, 1915. 

Roumania (allies of Austria considered it a decleu-ation of war) v. Austria, 
August 27, 1916. 

Russia V. Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 

Serbia v. Germany, August 6, 1914. 

Siam V. Austria, July 22, 1917. 

Siam V. Germany, July 22, 1917. 

Turkey v. Roumania, August 29, 1916. 

Turkey (holy war) v. Allies, November 11, 1914. 

United States v. Austria, December 7, 1917. 

United States v. Germany, April 6, 1917. 

SEVERANCES OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS 

Austria v. Portugal, March 15, 1916. 
Austria v. Serbia, July 26, 1914. 
Austria v. United States, April 8, 1917. 
Belgium v. Tm-key, October 30, 1914. 
Bolivia v. Germany, April 14, 1917. 
Brazil v. Germany, April 11, 1917. 
China v. Germany, March 14, 1917. 
Ecuador v. Germany, December 7, 1917. 
France v. Austria, August 11, 1914. 
France v. Turkey, October 30, 1914. 
Germany v. Italy, May 23, 1915. 
Great Britain v. Turkey, October 30, 1914. 
Greece v. Austria, July 2, 1917. 
Greece v. Turkey, July 2, 1917. 
Guatemda v. Germany, April 27, 1917. 
Haiti V. Germany, June 16, 1917. 
Honduras v. Germany, May 17, 1917. 
Japan v. Austria, August 25, 1914. 
Liberia v. Germany, May 8, 1917. 
Nicaragua v. Germany, May 19, 1917. 
Peru V. Germany, October 5, 1917. 
Roumania v. Bulgaria. August 30, 1916. 
Russia V. Bulgaria, October 5, 1915. 
Russia V. Roumania, January 28, 1918. 
Russia V. Turkey, October 30, 1914. 
Turkey v. United States, April 20, 1917. 
United States v. Germany, February 3, 1917. 
Uruguay v. Germany, October 7, 1917. 

79 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



MILESTONES OF THE ROAD TO VICTORY 

The number of men serving in the armed forces of the United States 
during the war was 4,800,000 of whom 4,000,000 served in the army. 

It took three years for the EngUsh armies in France to reach a strength 
of 2,000,000, but the American armies did it in one-half of that time. 

Out of every 100 men who served, 10 were National Guardsmen, 13 were 
Regulars, and 77 were in the National Army. 

In the physical examinations, the states of the Middle West made the 
best showing. Country boys did better than city boys, whites better than 
colored, and native-born better than foreign-born. 

In this war, the United States raised twice as many men as in the Civil 
War, and at one-twentieth of the cost for recruiting. 

There were 200,000 army officers. Of every 6 officers, one had previous 
military training with troops, 3 were graduates of officers' training camps, and 
2 came directly from civil life. 

Our participation in the war lasted 19 months. Half a million men were 
sent overseas in the first 13 months, and a miUion and a half in the last 6 
months. 

Half of the troops landed in France, and half of them in England. 

The highest troop carrying records are those of Jidy, 1918, when 306,000 
soldiers were carried to Europe, and May, 1919, when 330,000 were brought 
home to America. 

The greatest troop carrier among the ships was the Leviathan, which 
landed 12,000 men, or the equivalent of a German division, in France every 
month. 

One-fourth of all the troops who went overseas were assigned to the 
Services of Supply. 

The average American soldier in France wore out a sficker and overcoat 
every 5 months; a blanket, flannel shirt, and breeches every 2 months; a 
coat every 79 days; a pair of shoes and puttees every 51 days; a pair of 
drawers and an undershirt, every 34 days; and a pair of woolen socks every 
23 days. 

In 1912 the American army allotted 4 machine guns for each infantry 
regiment. In 1919 the aUotment is 336 machine guns per regiment. 

American plants produced a greater nmnber of complete units of artillery 
than all those purchased from the French and British during the war. 

In the first 20 months after the declaration of war by each nation. Great 
Britain produced more artillery than the United States, but the United States 
exceUed the British record in the production of heavy artillery and fight and 
heavy ammunition. 

American armies had in France 3,500 pieces of artiUery, of which nearly 
500 were made in America. They used on the firing fine 2,250 pieces of which 
130 were made in America. 

American aviators used 2,698 planes at the battle front, of which 667 

80 



MILESTONES ON THE ROAD TO VICTORY 



were of American manufacture. American aviators brought do>7n 755 enemy 
planes in action and lost 357. 

Two out of every three of the American soldiers who reached France 
took part in battle. 

American divisions were in battle for 200 days, and engaged in 13 major 
operations. 

During the last 4 months of the war, American divisions held a longer 
front than that held by the British armies. 

In October, 1918, the American divisions held 101 miles of front line, or 
23 per cent, of the entire western front. 

The most intense concentration of artillery fire ever recorded was that of 
the American troops in the battle of St. Mihiel, when our artillery fired more 
than 1,000,000 shells in four hours. 

The Meuse-Argonne battle lasted for 47 days, during which 1,200,000 
American troops were engaged. 

The total battle deaths of all nations in this war were greater than all the 
deaths in all the wars of the previous 100 years. 

The war cost the United States considerably more than one million 
dollars an hour for over two years. 

Our expenditures in this war were sufficient to have carried on the Revo- 
lutionary Weu- continuously for more than 1,000 years at the rate of expenditure 
which that war actually involved. 

The total war cost of all nations was about $186,000,000,000 of which 
the Allies spent two-thirds and the enemy one-third. 



ESTIMATED TOTAL WAR EXPENDITURES OF PRIN- 
CIPAL NATIONS TO APRIL 30, 1919 

(All figures in billions of dollars and excluding normal expenses) 

Billions 
of dollars 

Germany 39 

British Empire 38 

France 26 

United States 25 

Austria-Hungary 21 

Russia 18 

Italy 13 

Belgium, Roumania, Portugal, Jugo-Slavia 5 

Turkey and Bulgaria 3 

Japan and Greece 1 

Total expenditures 189 

81 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



GROSS TONNAGE OF SEAGOING MERCHANT VESSELS 
LOST AUGUST 1, 1914-NOVEMRER 11, 1918* 



Countries 


Total 


Enemy Action 


Marine Risk 


WORLD TOTAL 


15,413,603 


13,022,861 


2.390 742 






ALLIES AND NEUTRALS. . 


15,027,718 


12,743,674a 


2,284,044 


United States 


825,417 
8,899,650 
5,302,642 


394,658 
7,756,659 
4,592,357 


430 759b 


Great Britain 


1,143,000c 
710 285d 


Other Countries 






Norway 


385,885e 


1,177,001 

846,333 

888,783 

240,860 

200,829 

345,516 

182,933 

203,190 

167,865 

93,136 

83,819 

120,176 

25,464 

4.275 

6,027 

1,419 

3.973 

758 

279,187 




Italy 




France 

Denmark 




Sweden 




Greece 




Russia 




Holland 




Spain 




Portugal 




Belgium 




Japan 




Brazil 




Argentine 

Uruguay 

Peru 

Roumania 

ENEMY COUNTRiES...!! ; 


106,698 


Germany 

Austria 

Turkey 


273,605 
35,599 
76,681 


187,340 
15,166 
76,681 


86,265 
20,433 



a. Recorded by British Admiralty, unconfirmed by official reports of 
other countries. 

b. U. S. Shipping Board, Division of Planning and Statistics Report for 
vessels 500 gross tons and over. 

c. No figures available for further distribution of marine risk losses. 

d. Tabulated by Statistical Branch, British Ministry of Shipping for 
vessels 500 gross tons and over, July 1, 1914-October 31, 1918. 

e. From British Admiralty's Report of German and Austrian Mercantile 
Vessels and from reports of the Allied Maritime Transport Council as reported 
to February 1, 1919. 



*United States Shipping Board, Division of Planning and Statistics. 

82 



MILESTONES ON THE ROAD TO VICTORY 



EFFECT OF WAR ON SHIP TONNAGE 

(Figures in round numbers) 





United 
States 


United 
Kingdom 


Other 
Countries 


World 


At outbreak of war 

War losses 


7,900,000 

900,000 

7,000,000 

3,400,000 

500,000 

10,900,000 

900,000 

11,800,000 

+3,900,000 


19,250,000 
9,000,000 

10,250,000 

4,800,000 

700,000 

15,750,000 

675,000 
16,425,000 
-2,825,000 


15,250,000 
5,100,000 

10,150,000 
2,500,000 
1,175,000 

13,825,000 

550,000 

14,375,000 

-875,000 


42,400,000 
15,000,000 
27,400.000 
10,700,000 
2,375,000 
40,475,000 

2,125,000 

42,600,000 

+200,000 


Gross reduction to 


Added by building 


Added by seizures 


Tonnage, November 11, 1918 
Added to April 1, 1919 

(net estimate) 


Tonnage, April 1, 1919 

Gain or loss 



LOSS IN VALUES THROUGH SHIP SINKINGS 





United 
States 


United 
Kingdom 


Other Allies 
and Neutrals 


World's 
Total 


Ship values 
($200 a ton)... 

Cargo values 
($100 a ton) . . . 

Property, money 
and lives in- 
sured 
($10 a ton) .... 

Earning power 
($6.75 a ton a 
month) 


$182,370,800 
91,185,400 

9,118,540 
134,033,122 


$1,808,748,800 
904,374,400 

90,437,440 
1,340,331,217 


$1,022,452,600 
511,266,300 

51,122,639 
759,521,023 


$3,013,572,200 
1,506,786,100 

150,678,610 
2,233.885,362 


Total for ships 

sunk 

Ships damaged . . 


$416,707,862 
$ 52,568,383 


$4,143,891,857 
$521,371,841 

$4,665,263,698 


$2,344,322,553 
$294,721,962 


$6,904,922,272 

$868,662,186 


Total marine 
losses 


$469,276,245 
1 


$2,639,044,515 


$7,773,584,458 



83 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



AMERICAN DATA FOR THE MEUSE-ARGONNE 
BATTLE 

Days of battle 47 

American troops engaged 1,200,000 

Guns employed in attack 2,417 

Romids of artillery ammimition fired 4,214,000 

Airplanes used 840 

Tons of explosives dropped by planes on enemy lines 100 

Tanks used , 324 

Miles of penetration of enemy line, maximum 34 

Square kilometers of territory taken 1,550 

Villages and towns liberated 150 

Prisoners captured 16,059 

Artillery pieces captured 468 

Machine guns captured 2,864 

Trench mortars captured 177 

American casualties 120,000 



FIGURES OF AMERICAN PARTICIPATION IN THE 

WAR 

Total armed forces, including army, navy, marine corps, etc.. 4,800,000 

Total men in the army 4,000,000 

Men who went overseas 2,086,000 

Men who fought in France 1,390,000 

Greatest number of men sent in one month 306,000 

Greatest number of men returning in one month 333,000 

Tons of supplies shipped from America to France 7,500,000 

Total of men registered in draft 24,234,021 

Total draft inductions (men) 2,810,296 

Graduates of Line Olficers* Training Schools 80,468 

Cost of war to June 30, 1919 $30,427,000,000 

Cost of army to June 30, 1919 $14,930,000,000 

Battles fought by American troops 13 

Months of American participation in the war 19 

Days of battle 200 

Duration of Meuse-Argonne battle (days) 47 

Americans in Meuse-Argonne battle 1,200,000 

American casualties in Meuse-Argonne battle 120,000 

American battle deaths of war 50,000 

American wounded in war 236,000 

American deaths from disease 66,991 

Total deaths in the army 112,422 

84 



MILESTONES ON THE ROAD TO VICTORY 



WAR CASUALTIES 

Americans lost at sea 692 

British subjects lost at sea 20,620 

English men, women and children the victims of air raids and 

bombardment 1,270 

Belgians killed in various ways 30,000 

French killed in various ways 40,000 

Neutrals killed by submarines 7,500 

Armenians, Syrians, Jews and Greeks massacred or starved by 

the Turks 4,000,000 

Deaths beyond the normal mortality from influenza and pneu- 
monia induced by the war 4,000,000 

Serbian dead through disease or massacre 1,085,441 

DEATHS DUE TO WAR 

Military deaths 7,462,813 

avilian deaths 9,185,523 

Total 16,648,336 



BATTLE DEATHS IN ARMIES ENGAGED IN PRESENT 
WAR, 1914-1918 

Russia 1,700,000 

Germany 1,600,000 

France 1,385,300 

Great Britain 900,000 

Austria 800,000 

Italy 330,000 

Turkey .- . . . 250,000 

Serbia and Montenegro *..... 125,000 

Belgium 102,000 

Roumania 100,000 

Bulgaria 100,000 

United States 60,000 

Greece 7,000 

Portugal > 2,000 

Total 7,461,300 



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11 



THE PEACE TREATIES 



AMERICAN LOANS TO ALLIES * 

The following advances have been made by the United States Treasury 
to the AUies. I'hese debts are represented by demand obligations bearing 5% 
interest. 

Belgium $343,445,000. 00 

Cuba 10,000,000.00 

Czecho-Slovakia 55,330,000. 00 

France 3,047,974.777.24 

Great Britain 4,316,000,000. 00 

Greece 48,236,629. 00 

Italy 1,618,775,945. 99 

Liberia 5,000,000. 00 

Roumania 30,000,000. 00 

Russia 187,729,750. 00 

Serbia 26,780,465. 56 



$9,689,272,567.84 
A total of $10,000,000,000 in loans to the Allies has been authorized by 
Congress and it is expected that within a short time the whole authorization 
will be utilized. 

* Corrected to September 10, 1919. 



88 



INDEX 



INDEX TO GERMAN TREATY 



PAGE 

Air Forces Clauses 28 

Air Navigation 43 

Aggression Under League, Art. 10 9 

Air Control, Under League 9 

Arbitration Under Ijeague 10 

Armaments, Reduction Under 

League 9 

Armaments, Rhine Forts Demol- 
ished 21 

Alsace-Lorraine Clauses 22 

Armaments, Military Clauses. ... 27 

Armaments, Naval Clauses 28 

Armaments, Air Clauses 28 

Belgian Clauses 21 

Bilateral Treaties 35 

Bond Issues, Indemnity 31 

Boundaries, German 18 

Brazilian Coffee Indemnity 34 

Bulgaria, Treaties with 26 

Cables Transfer 33 

Cameroons 25 

Canals, Kiel 45 

Canals, Ports, Railways 44 

Chinese Clauses 25 

Clearing Offices 36 

Clearing Offices 37 

Coal, Payments in 32 

Coal, Saar Fields Ceded 21 

Colonies 25 

Commission, Reparations 31 

Competition, Unfair 34 

Contracts, Pre- War 40 

Cancellation, Mortgages, Etc 40 

Covenant, League of Nations. ... 6 

Customs Clauses 34 

Czechoslovakia 23 

Debts, German Pre- War 33 

Debts, German Pre- War 36 

Debts, German Pre- War 37 

Discipline, under League 12 

Dispute, under League 10 

Between Members and Non- 
members 13 

Dyes and Chemicals, Payments in 32 

Damages, Defined 30 

Danish Frontier 24 

Danube Commission 44 



PAGE 

Danzig, Free City of 24 

East Prvissia and Memel 24 

Economic Clauses 34 

Customs, Ports, Competition . . 34 

Mutilations, etc.. Treaties 35 

Pre-War Debts 36 

Clearing Offices 36 

Effective Dates 47 

Egypt 26 

Embargo, Gold 34 

Enemy Property, Restoration.. . . 39 

European Pohtical Clauses 21 

Extra European Clauses 25 

German Colonies 25 

Chinese Clauses 25 

Siam, Liberia, Morocco, Egypt. 25 

Financial Provision 33 

Pre-War Debt, Cost of Occupa- 
tion 33 

Gold Embargo, Brazilian Coffee 34 

Foreigners, Treatment of 35 

Forts, Heligoland, Demolished. . . 24 

Forts, Rhine, Demolished 21 

Free Ports 44 

Funded Interests, Expropriation 

of 33 

German Austria 23 

Gex Zone 48 

Gold Embargo 34 

Graves and Prisoners 29 

Guaranties, Treaty 47 

Heligoland Forts Domolished. ... 24 

Indemnities 30 

Industrial Property 42 

Insurance Clauses 41 

International Rivers 44 

Kaiser, Surrender and Trial of . . . 29 

Kiel Canal. 45 

Labor Organization 46 

Governing Body 46 

Procedure 46 

General Clauses 47 

League of Nations Covenant 6 

League of Nations, How Con- 
stituted 6 

League of Nations, Colonies 
Under 14 



89 



PAGE 

League of Nations, Mandatories. 15 

League of Nations, Seat of 8 

League of Nations, Ratification. . 15 
League of Nations, Red Cross. . . 16 
League of Nations, Secretariat. . . 8 
League of Nations, Treaty Reg- 
istration 13 

League of Nations, Treaties to 

be made 15 

League of Nations, War under. . 12 
League of Nations, Votes of 

Members 8 

Liberia 26 

Luxemburg Clauses 21 

Mandatories under League 15 

Members of League 17 

Military Clauses 27 

Miscellaneous Provision 47 

Morocco . 26 

Moselle 44 

Multilateral Treaties 35 

Naval Clauses 27 

Navigation, Aerial 43 

Obligations under League, Art. 10 9 

Obligations under League 14 

Opium 43 

Patents 43 

Poland Established 23 

Political Clauses 21 

Ports, Canals Railway 44 

Ports, Freedom of 34 

Preamble, German Treaty 1 

Pre- War Contracts 40 

Pre-War Debt 33 

Prisoners and Graves 29 

Prize Courts 48 

Railways, Ports, Canals 44 



PAGE 

Railways, Through Services 45 

Ratification of Treaty 48 

Red Cross vmder League 16 

Religious Missions 43 

Reoccupation 47 

Reparation and Restitution 30 

Damages, Indemnities 30 

Reparation Commission 31 

Bond Issues 31 

Shipping, Coal, Dyes 32 

Responsibili ty for War 30 

Restoration of Devastated Areas. 32 

Restoration, Property 39 

Rhine 44 

Rhine Forts Demolished 21 

River Craft Ceded 45 

Rivers, International 44 

Rivers, Danube 44 

Rivers, Rhine 44 

Rivers, MoseUe 44 

Russian Clauses 24 

Saar Coal Fields Ceded 21 

Savoy Zone 48 

Schleswig 24 

Shantung 27 

Shipping 48 

Shipping, Restitution of 32 

Siam 26 

Signatories, German Treaty 1 

Special Provisions 33 

Tie Votes 48 

Trademarks 43 

Transit, Freedom of 44 

Treaty Guaranties 47 

Treaty, Ratification of 48 

Trial of Kaiser 29 

Turkey, Treaties with 26 



INDEX TO AUSTRIAN TREATY 



PAGE 

Aerial Navigation 74 

Air Clauses 62 

Archives, Surrender of 59 

Armament, Reduction 61 

Arms, Traffic in 77 

Austria, Treaty with 51 

Austro-Himgarian Bank, Liqui- 
dation of 68 

Bank, Austro-Hungarian, Liqui- 
dation 69 

Banking Interests, Foreign 70 

Belgian Clauses 59 

Bilateral Treaties 72 

Boundaries 52 

Boundaries Recognized 59 

Boundary Commissions 55 

Brest-Litovsk Treaty 70 

Bulgarian Clauses 59 

Cables 65 



PAGE 

China Clauses 59 

Civil Judgments 57 

Clearing Offices 72 

Coinage, Disposition of 70 

Commercial Clauses 72 

Commission, Reparations 63 

Competition, Unfair 72 

Contracts, Etc 73 

Copyrights, Etc.. ....._ 72 

Crown Lands, Disposition 70 

Customs Clauses 71 

Czecho-Slovak State 58 

Danube Clauses 75 

Debt, Old War 68 

Debts of Transferred States 67 

Debts, Settlement of 72 

Economic Clauses 71 

Egypt Clauses 60 

Exti'a European Clauses 59 



90 



PAGE 

Financial Clauses 67 

Reparation 67 

Surrender of Materials 67 

Debts 67 

Foreign Banking Interests 70 

Gold, German Transfer 70 

Gold, Turkish, Surrendered 70 

Graves and Prisoners 63 

Industrial Property 73 

Insurance Companies 74 

International Rivers 75 

Klagenfurt Plebiscite 57 

Labor Provisions 77 

Legacies, Donations, etc 73 

Liquidation of Austro-Hungarian 

Banks 68 

Liquor Traffic 77 

Livestock Reparations 65 

Luxemburg Clauses 59 

Minorities, Protection of 58 

Military Clauses 61 

Miscellaneous Provisions 77 

Money Standards Acceptable. ... 71 

Morocco Clauses 60 

Multilateral Treaties 72 

Nationality, Transfers of 58 

Naval Clauses 62 

Navigation, Aerial 74 

Penalties 63 

Pension Liability 71 

Political Clauses 55 



PAGE 

Ports, Waterways, Railways 74 

Power Stations, Central 56 

Preamble 51 

Priority of Charges 67 

Prisoners and Graves 63 

Property Rights, Etc 72 

Railroads, State, in Italy 56 

Railways, Ports, Waterways 74 

Railways, Transit, Etc 76 

Railways, Italian Projects 76 

Reparations 63 

Reparations : 

Livestock 65 

Goods 65 

Restoration of Art Works 66 

Rivers, International 75 

Rivers, Danube 75 

Roumanian Clauses 58 

Russian Clauses 59 

Schleswig Clause 59 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 57 

Siam Clauses 60 

Special Provisions 65 

State Property in Italy 56 

Trademarks, Etc 72 

Transit, Railways 76 

Treaties, Mutilated and Bilateral 72 

Treaty, Brest-Litovsk 70 

Turkish Clauses 59 

Utility Holdings 70 

Wireless Clauses 62 



MISCELLANEOUS 



PAGE 

American War Contributions ... 80 

American Loans to Allies 88 

American Participation Figures . . 84 

Argonne, Data 84 

Casualties, War 79 

Debts, War, of Belligerents 86 

Diplomatic Severance Dates 79 



PAGE 

Expenditures of Belligerents.... 81 

France, Separate Treaty with 49 

Shipping, Losses in Values 83 

Shipping Losses of World 82 

Shipping War Effect on Tonnage. 83 

Treaty with France 53 

War Declarations, Dates 78 



91 



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